Research Question 4: Significant Challenges Impeding Technology Adoption in Higher Education

What do you see as the significant challenges that higher education will face during the next five years?

INSTRUCTIONS: Enter your responses to the questions below. This is most easily done by moving your cursor to the end of the last item and pressing RETURN to create a new bullet point. Please include URLs whenever you can (full URLs will automatically be turned into hyperlinks; please type them out rather than using the linking tools in the toolbar).

NOTE: The Significant Challenges are sorted into three difficulty related categories based on their appearance in previous Horizon Report editions -- solvable challenges are those that we both understand and know how to solve, but seemingly lack the will; difficult challenges are ones that are more or less well-understood but for which solutions remain elusive; wicked challenges, the most difficult, are complex to even define, and thus require additional data and insights before solutions will even be possible. In your responses to the trends below, feel free to explore why or why not the challenge should be in its specific category.

As you review what others have written, please add your thoughts and comments as well.

Please "sign" each of your contributions by marking with the code of 4 tildes (~) in a row so that we can follow up with you if we need additional information or leads to examples- this produces a signature when the page is updated, like this: - Larry Larry Feb 7, 2012

Compose your entries like this:

Challenge Name
Add your ideas here, with few sentences of description including full URLs for references (e.g. And do not forget to sign your contribution with 4 ~ (tilde) characters!

Balancing our Connected and Unconnected Lives
With the abundance of content, technologies, and overall participatory options, learning institutions need to lead the way to facilitating finding a balance between connected and unconnected life. With technology now at the center of many daily activities, it is important that learners understand how to balance their connected life with other developmental needs. Educational institutions should lead the way to ensure learners do not get lost and absorbed by the abundance of information and technology, and encourage mindful use of technology so that students stay aware of their digital footprint. As education aligns closer with technological trends, teachers will have to promote this balance, encouraging students to feel, digest, reflect, touch, and pursue sensorial experiences that are crucial to developing character and integrity. Finding a balance and guiding learners to personal success should be society's compromise with new generations of students. --- To me, this seems a very important point. I just wonder if users will accept educational institutions leading the way here (however well-intended) or if they will use their devices whichever way and whenever they like or feel compelled to do so, regarding it as part of their personal lives. - helga helga Oct 6, 2015 I fully agree - agermain agermain Oct 18, 2015 So do I . - ole ole Oct 19, 2015- lkoster lkoster Oct 25, 2015 Excellent points here! - kelvin kelvin Oct 25, 2015 A great quote from Sherry Turkle says it extremely well, "Where we put our attention is not only how we decide what we learn, it is about how we show what we value." - cevetell cevetell Oct 22, 2015 I like to think of it as Blended Living - there is no part of my life that does not involve technology in some way, and it was interesting to take a group of students on an outward bound course recently only to find they were unable to light a fire. When I asked them why, after three hours of trying, my marshmallows remained untoasted, they explained me it was because there was no wifi or phone signal, so they "Couldn't Google it." For the first time in their lives, these academically gifted young people were unable to connect to the online world, and they found it most uncomfortable. In the end I lit the fire - it took me less than two minutes. (- damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Oct 22, 2015) To add to this, there there is conflicting research regarding the value added and distraction caused when students use their computers during class time. As handwriting skill decreases, will students have an alternative to using their computer to take notes? - a.gyorke a.gyorke Oct 22, 2015 I agree completely. Even though I'm an avid proponent of digital technology and innovation, there needs to be some equilibrium that helps us to maintain perspective and allows us to see the bigger picture without a tainted vision. Additionally, I've see an increase in the over dependence of technology with some students to the point that they are avoid typing and losing some valuable core skills needed for written communication. - Dougdar Dougdar Oct 23, 2015 The handwriting/typing comments above make me think of the role of speech-to-text as part of the writing process. I use speech-to-text more and more as I dash off quick emails or text messages. However, I find that my spoken word process and my typed word process are not the same. Sometimes I go back and edit my "verbal drafts," and sometimes I do not. I do wonder how this and other inputs will shape what we think of as "writing" in the years to come. (Cue the obligatory reference to holo-novel "writing" via spoken word + computer programming as depicted in Star Trek: Voyager and other parts of the Star Trek franchise.) - - kelvin kelvin Oct 25, 2015 I agree with all of the above. Sketchnoting is a notable micro-trend. Classes using a design method also still use mock-ups made from paper. And in my past life as a professor I gave students a "Day Without Media" assignment--which I see others have since adopted: - edward.oneill edward.oneill Oct 25, 2015

Blending Formal and Informal Learning
Traditional approaches with roots in the 18th century and earlier are still very common in many institutions, and often stifle learning as much as they foster it. As the Internet has brought the ability to learn something about almost anything to the palm of one’s hand, there is an increasing interest in the kinds of self-directed, curiosity-based learning that has long been common in museums and science centers. These and other more serendipitous forms of learning fall under the banner of Informal learning, and serve to enhance student engagement by encouraging them to follow their own learning pathways and interests. Many experts believe that a blending of formal and informal methods of teaching and learning can create an environment that fosters experimentation, curiosity, and above all, creativity. [Among the challenges of bridging informal with formal learning are 1) assessing and recognizing that learning has taken place (e.g. badging, micro-certifications, leveling of experiences, validating experiences) and how that learning fits with other goals and objectives of certified programs in higher education (e.g. transcript-meaning of the informal experiences, representation in portfolios and professional networking sharing platforms). - david.c.gibson david.c.gibson Sep 29, 2015 ] - shaffeje shaffeje Oct 25, 2015 As addressed in the chapter on Online Learning, there still seems to be a fear that "online" will entirely replace "presence" and learners will be isolated from "real life" personal interaction with others. Blending seems to me the ideal solution, combining the best of both worlds.- helga helga Oct 7, 2015 As part of this learning environment we may need to rethink the concept of 'cheating.' The parameters of knowledge and learning are changing; we are beyond rote memorization, thinks - michael.lambert michael.lambert Oct 9, 2015.- Sam Sam Oct 16, 2015- lkoster lkoster Oct 25, 2015- agermain agermain Oct 18, 2015 Good way of putting it - ole ole Oct 19, 2015 I have said a great deal about this in earlier sections and at the risk of repeatping myself, education has to evolve, and we need to spend time, money and effort winning the hearts and minds of the academics in order to get them on board and giving them the training and support they need to make this happen. (- damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Oct 22, 2015) In addition, nano-degrees are emerging. - michael.lambert michael.lambert Oct 24, 2015 - shaffeje shaffeje Oct 25, 2015 It might be possible to add authentic learning and service learning strategies as ways that formal learning is trying to incorporate activities meaningful to those outside higher ed. - edward.oneill edward.oneill Oct 25, 2015

Competing Models of Education
New models of education are bringing unprecedented competition to schools, especially for students whose needs are not being well served by the current system. Charter and online schools have particularly gained traction in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Scandinavia. According to the National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, there are more than 6,000 charter schools in the US alone with more than 1.9 million students enrolled, compared to over 98,000 public schools where 49.4 million students are enrolled. Most US states also offer and encourage enrollment in online courses, and some states are requiring students complete them in order to graduate. Adding to this challenge is the fact that many students do not formally attend either type of school; the National Center for Education Statistic reports that nearly 3% of the school-age population was home schooled during the 2010-11 school year. Ninety-one percent of the parents of these children cited concern over the environments of tradition and charter schools when asked about their choice. For school leaders and policy makers, the challenge is to meet such competition head on, offering high-quality alternatives to students who need or desire them. As new platforms emerge, there is a growing need to frankly evaluate [and integrate - david.c.gibson david.c.gibson Sep 29, 2015] the new models and determine how to best support collaboration, interaction, deep learning experiences, and assessment at scale [ while unbundling and re-thinking the delivery types, processes and costs - david.c.gibson david.c.gibson Sep 29, 2015 ]. However, even though platforms have evolved for the best this last decade to allow for more active pedagogies, it is still difficult to find a platform that is truly conducive to easy, user friendly, online interaction and collaboration for students who are working on projects with others at distance, specially synchronously. - shaffeje shaffeje Oct 25, 2015 The platform Shindig, however, is showing the right direction, with it very easy and authentic online video interaction functionality. Compare to other platforms, recreating the type of authentic interactions we have a in brick and mortar classroom ( students to students, students to teacher, teacher to group of students, and teacher to individual student, etc.) is possible with this very interesting platform. and can change the type of pedagogical dynamic we have for the moment for online courses. - agermain agermain Oct 18, 2015 We have had a one size fits some, if not quite all, educational system for such a long time, it will be difficult to comvinve institutions to move away from tried an trusted paradigms. It will also take a long time to assess the effectiveness of new ways of doing things, and this, of course, will delay experimentation with, and adoption of, new models. Time, money, and training bass on validate research are the main barriers to adoption. (- damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Oct 22, 2015) - lkoster lkoster Oct 25, 2015 Something should be said here about labor. Different institutional models imply different valuations of knowledge and the experience of acquiring it and having that knowledge verified. And different valuations imply different ways of valuing teaching as labor. It's a package. You can't change what learning means or how it happens and not rethink how we are remunerated for making it happen, down to the person. Labor and the ethical issues around it must be integral to the discussion of changing institutional models--because people do indeed live in poverty because they teach. The average income of a Cal State University professor is below the state average income: - edward.oneill edward.oneill Oct 25, 2015

Creating Authentic Learning Opportunities
[Scalable, Digital ? - david.c.gibson david.c.gibson Sep 29, 2015 ] Authentic learning, especially that which brings real life experiences into the classroom, is still all too uncommon in schools. Authentic learning is seen as an important pedagogical strategy, with great potential to increase the engagement of students who are seeking some connection between the world as they know it exists outside of school, and their experiences in school that are meant to prepare them for that world. Use of learning strategies that incorporate real life experiences, technology, and tools that are already familiar to students, and interactions from community members are examples of approaches that can bring authentic learning into [the approved formal learning experiences including - david.c.gibson david.c.gibson Sep 29, 2015 ] the classroom. Practices such as these may help retain students in school and prepare them for further education, careers, and citizenship in a way that traditional practices are too often failing to do. - michael.lambert michael.lambert Oct 16, 2015 - francisca francisca Oct 25, 2015 There is so much more to education and, indeed, life than reading books and listening to what teacher has to say. Authentic Learning - what's not to love? All we have to do now is convince the academic fraternity of the need to do things differently. That should see me through to the end of my career. (- damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Oct 22, 2015) There are a number of opportunities to provide students with viable learning experiences that extend beyond the traditional parameters of the classic environment. Aside from looking at this purely as a matters of logistical facilitation, we should also look at what methods are emerging to enable learning. There are valuable peer-based learning opportunities as well as a host of relevant experiential opportunities that we can now facilitate that in previous years have not been made available. The ability to engage in global interaction or to participate remotely with on-site research in situations and environments from space to the deep within the ocean are fantastic real-world opportunities for students to gain tangible concrete experiences to build new knowledge upon. - Dougdar Dougdar Oct 25, 2015

Expanding Access
The global drive to increase the number of students participating in undergraduate education is placing pressure across the system. The oft-cited relationship between earning potential and educational attainment plus the clear impact of an educated society on the growth of the middle class is pushing governments to encourage more and more students to enter universities and colleges. In many countries, however, the population of students prepared for undergraduate study is already enrolled — expanding access means extending it to students who may not have the academic background to be successful without additional support [ such as from self-scaffolded, self-directed, free access to basic education - david.c.gibson david.c.gibson Sep 29, 2015 ]. Many in universities feel that these institutions do not have sufficient time and resources to help this set of students [unless new techniques of delivery with technology can be effectively used to reach and teach masses at low cost - david.c.gibson david.c.gibson Sep 29, 2015]. There are universities (UW-Seatle) this is experimenting with online 'onboarding' courses for graduating high school seniors to be sure they are prepared for college.- deborah.cooke deborah.cooke Oct 15, 2015. Also the growing amount of migrants with a totally different cultural and lingual background should be taken into consideration. - ole ole Oct 19, 2015 I'm waiting for access to cover seniors and elders, especially for countries seeing shrinking youth populations. - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Oct 18, 2015- rubenrp rubenrp Oct 25, 2015 Access also calls for support in learning, especially for some marginalized populations. That adds to cost. - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Oct 18, 2015 This is interesting to think about it from a global perspective because there is rhetoric in the U.S. (and perhaps data too?) that access is a problem that has largely been addressed, but success and completion are problems that continue and affect student populations inequitably. - kvogt kvogt Oct 20, 2015 It would be ironic of it turns out that the only way to close the gap between the earning potential, and all that engenders, of those with and without degrees, would be to make sure that everyone has a degree, which will mean it will become effectively valueless. of course then people with masters degrees will become the new "elite". And so it continues. My point is, why does everyone need a degree? We all know the oft-cited list of successful people who have done amazing things having dropped out of college. It didn't seem to hinder them did it? Of course I cannot really argue against everyone receiving education, but I do take issue with the idea that everyone should be doing a degree in order to be deemed a success. Of course we need to ensure everyone receives an appropriate level of education in order to lead happy, fulfilling and worthwhile lives, but I do not see a degree as a universal panacea. (- damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Oct 22, 2015)
Perhaps the opposite movement is another challenge. What if we decide that, as Damian suggests, not everyone needs a college degree? Further, what if too many people are getting degrees who don't need them? The US has already seen three years of declining total enrollment... - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Oct 25, 2015 - kelvin kelvin Oct 25, 2015
Improving Digital Literacy
With the proliferation of the Internet, mobile devices, and other technologies that are now pervasive in education, the traditional view of literacy as the ability to read and write has expanded to encompass understanding [and using - david.c.gibson david.c.gibson Sep 29, 2015 ] digital tools and information. This new category of competence is affecting how education institutions address literacy issues in their curriculum objectives and teacher development programs. Lack of consensus on what comprises digital literacy is impeding many schools from formulating adequate policies and programs that address this challenge. Discussions among educators have included the idea of digital literacy as equating to competence with a wide range of digital tools for varied educational [ participatory citizenship and professionally productive - david.c.gibson david.c.gibson Sep 29, 2015 ] purposes, or as an indicator of having the ability to critically evaluate resources available on the web. However, both definitions are broad and ambiguous. Compounding this issue is the notion that digital literacy encompasses skills that differ for educators and learners, as teaching with technology is inherently different from learning with it. Supporting digital literacy will require policies that both address digital fluency training in pre- and in-service teachers, along with the students they teach. --- This is a key and fundamental challenge.- helga helga Oct 7, 2015 - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Oct 18, 2015 - momillard momillard Oct 22, 2015 - billshewbridge billshewbridge Oct 24, 2015As always, this appears to be a dual challenge of defining and fostering/improving digital literacy. There still are a variety of approaches to defining digital literacy, including the idea that for some it implies a checklist of skills to be mastered, while for others it is an ever-evolving process reflecting the changes in our digital environments.- paul.signorelli paul.signorelli Oct 15, 2015 - michael.lambert michael.lambert Oct 16, 2015 We should strive for the latter definition to be the benchmark. - ole ole Oct 19, 2015 - francisca francisca Oct 25, 2015 A great deal of effort has been put into schools in the UK to improve digital literacy, but it's lack of definition remains a problem. Too much emphasis has traditionally been placed on the ability to use software packages on computers, and not enough on how to build and program them. Thapunk fully, this now starting to be addressed, and the next generation of "Digital Natives" will not only be able to use digital tools, but actually create the hardware and software. Then, and only then will they become the "Digital Literati" that they will need to be in order to succeed. (- damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Oct 22, 2015) Still a huge challenge in the settings with which I'm most familiar; as the introductory text suggests,"there's a lack of consensus on what comprises digital literacy," and we have wonderful opportunities to help shape that definition and address the overall challenge of improving digital literacy--once we agree what it is.- paul.signorelli paul.signorelli Oct 23, 2015- lkoster lkoster Oct 25, 2015 - francisca francisca Oct 25, 2015 Digital Capabilities Tools, discovery, adaptability, fluency are key to staff/student digital partnerships, making impactful changes to learning and teaching requires a rapid development in this area. Digital capabilities are the digital skills an individual needs to live and work in a digital society. Staffordshire University have developed a programme to provide opportunities for all staff to gain and enhance these essential skills called Digital U. Taking a collaborative community approach the digital U project will work in partnership with colleagues across the University to develop online resources and f2f opportunities for engagement. This means that staff will not only be able to take advantage of the resources provided but can also make their own contribution to these building a community approach and sharing expertise and aspiration wherever it exists. - DaveP DaveP Oct 25, 2015 very interesting - lkoster lkoster Oct 25, 2015 Not wanting to repeat myself from previous years, but Digital Literacy is a core skill, expected by employers and needs to be embedded into the curriculum, staff development process and institutional practice. We need to democratize these skills, they are not special, they need to be the norm. If the UK's new National Computing Curriculum ( gains traction then HEIs can expect a generation of undergraduates with a range of skills and experiences that don't align to what they will receive on entry to University. By 2020 students will have better digital skills than staff, so institutions need to wake uo - neil.witt neil.witt
Integrating Technology in Teacher Education
Teacher training still does not acknowledge the fact that digital media literacy continues its rise in importance as a key skill in every discipline and profession. Despite the widespread agreement on the importance of digital competence [ and a growing agreement about the central role of the integration of technology, content and teaching knowledge and skill (e.g. the TPACK model) - david.c.gibson david.c.gibson Sep 29, 2015], training in the supporting skills and techniques is rare in teacher education and non-existent in the preparation of teachers. As teachers begin to realize that they are limiting their students by not helping them to develop and use digital competence skills across the curriculum, the lack of formal training is being offset through professional development or informal learning, but we are far from seeing digital media literacy as a norm. This challenge is exacerbated by the fact that digital literacy is less about tools and more about thinking, and thus skills and standards based on tools and platforms have proven to be somewhat ephemeral. --- see the above "Improving Digital Literacy" - helga helga Oct 7, 2015 I think the above comments would do better to contextualize the assertions about teacher education. Is the comment (first sentence) intended to refer the state of teacher education in ALL countries? If so, then New Zealand must be an anomaly to this deficiency. - n.wright n.wright Oct 16, 2015 As mentioned in another context - and previously in Horizon discussions - we (like all Danish universities) have a mandatory programme for assistant professors and postdocs that implies an IT module; besides, the whole programme is run as blended learning via Blacboard., all tenured professors at my academic area (Business and Social Sciences) must participate in a special course - ole ole Oct 19, 2015 We need to practise what we preach. If educators continue to be educated by educators using the traditional education methods with which they, in turn, were educated, things will never change. Being an expert in a particular subject does not necessarily mean you will be able to teach that subject, and yet we choose our academics based on their research profiles, not on their teaching abilities. Parity between teaching and research might be a good start, coupled with teaching teachers to teach using up to date teaching pedagogies, and then followed up with regular re-training and development as they progress thoughout their careers, so they keep up with progress in the learning and teaching as well as in their academic field. Simple. (- damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Oct 22, 2015) This is so critical. Even though there shouldn't be an expectation that the instructor be functioning at a level above all students in terms of all the tools involved, there needs to exist the ability to interact and comprehend the technology so as to know its potential. Otherwise avoidance takes place and the learner is either stifled from exploring new opportunities to leverage and exploit solutions, or is forced to work only within methods that are not fully relevant with the standards and practices encountered outside of the academic experience. Adaptation is good for all, and new skills and experiences brings opportunities for collaborative learning to take place. - Dougdar Dougdar Oct 23, 2015 I'm seeing an increasing integration of technology into teacher education in some higher ed settings here in the U.S.--sometimes with support from library staff on campuses--and suspect the ongoing challenge is as much centered on continually updating the new technology available as it is centered on the initial (and ongoing) need for more effective integration of technology into teacher education.- paul.signorelli paul.signorelli Oct 23, 2015
The TPACK reference above is particularly crucial in this context: many of the programs that are integrating technology into teacher education are doing so in a decontextualized way that does not truly incorporate its integration with content and pedagogical knowledge. In other words, the "intersections" of the TPACK model are missing in these programs (e.g. how a careful consideration of Shulman's Pedagogical Content Knowledge - PCK - can inform the integration of technology into education.)- rubenrp rubenrp Oct 25, 2015

Keeping Education Relevant
As online learning and free educational content become more pervasive, stakeholders and administrators must seriously consider what schools can provide that cannot be replicated by other sources. It is no longer necessary for parents to send their children to school for them to become knowledgeable and gain skills that will lead them to gainful employment. There are, however, valuable skills and attitudes that can only be acquired in school settings. Soft skills, such as face-to-face communication and collaboration, for instance, are essential practices for solving problems in a world that is increasingly interconnected. Similarly, work ethic and the ability to persevere through even the toughest challenges, both social and academic, are reinforced in formal education environments. The idea is to rethink the value of education as a means of reinforcing attitudes and skills learners will need to seek credible information, work effectively in teams, and persist in achieving their goals. A recent survey by the Workforce Solutions Group found that more than 60% of employers say applicants lack “communication and interpersonal skills.” On the same note, the National Association of Colleges and Employers surveyed more than 200 employers about their top ten priorities in new hires and found that hiring managers desire people who are team players, problem solvers and can plan, organize and prioritize their work while technical skills fell lower on the list. Generally speaking, trends in hiring make it clear that soft skills such as communication and work ethic are differentiating outstanding applicants from the pile. [Add 'grit' to work ethic. Yes, it's another Bingo word; however, it is a primary element that lacks in many students. Grit, empathy, and compassion are elements we need to build into our courses when's relevant. - michael.lambert michael.lambert Sep 30, 2015 ] - helga helga Oct 7, 2015 So industry are looking for well rounded people who can work in teams and get on with their colleagues - aren't we all?! At The University of Leeds I have helped to create the UGRL programme that addresses these very issues and develops these most prized of skills (hence my taking them on an outward bound course - see above!) but it is entirely run using money from donors, it is only for a select few students, and it is an add on to their degree, not an integral part of it. I would dearly love to roll this out across the institution, but the only way to do it would be to integrate it into the curriculum. Watch this space. (- damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Oct 22, 2015) - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Oct 18, 2015 - Dougdar Dougdar Oct 23, 2015 Such a wonderful, meaty, and ongoing topic to explore and attempt to address for the various elements it seems to encompass. The opening lines about considering what schools can provide that cannot be replicated by other sources, for example, offers a complementary keeping-education-relevant challenge of considering what schools and other providers of lifelong learning opportunities can do to better coordinate their efforts. The vehement objection expressed by a wonderful, highly-respected university-based colleague when I mentioned how impressed I was by Pasi Sahlberg's Finnish Lessons and its description of how educators and employers work together to foster relevant education makes me think we continue to have fears (e.g., fear of losing control over education if business colleagues are involved in the education process) that prevent us from identifying and working with potential partners to meet this challenge. And the lack of attention I see workplace learning and performance (staff training) colleagues giving to what learners in higher education (i.e., our future employees) are experiencing in terms of learning approaches makes me think learners and employers are going to have tremendous problems if "education" doesn't evolve to include the concept of lifelong learning responding to learners' needs and (learning) preferences as well as to the needs of the employers and customers they ultimately serve. If we want "education" in the broadest possible sense to continue being relevant, we do need to be looking at it in terms of it being a lifelong endeavor springing from tremendous collaborative efforts among learning facilitators.- paul.signorelli paul.signorelli Oct 23, 2015 - shaffeje shaffeje Oct 25, 2015

Managing Knowledge Obsolescence
[and Emergence (or Evolution) - david.c.gibson david.c.gibson Sep 29, 2015 Simply staying organized and current presents a challenge in a world where information, software tools, and devices proliferate at the rate they do today. New developments in technology are exciting and their potential for improving quality of life is enticing, but it can be overwhelming to attempt to keep up with even a few of the many new tools that are released. User-created content [ and distributed intelligence via knowledge tools and social networks - david.c.gibson david.c.gibson Sep 29, 2015] is exploding, giving rise to information, ideas, and opinions on all sorts of interesting topics. But following even some of the hundreds of available authorities means sifting through a mountain of information on a weekly or daily basis. There is a greater need than ever for effective tools and filters for finding, interpreting, organizing, and retrieving the data that is important to us. [The tools and approaches of data science need to become much more commonplace and will go hand-in-hand with growing capabilities to deal with 'big data.' - david.c.gibson david.c.gibson Sep 29, 2015] - lkoster lkoster Oct 25, 2015 - helga helga Oct 7, 2015 I run the Blended Learning Team at the University of Leeds and, to all intents and purposes, we are the filters. Part of our role is to investigate new technologies, assess their educational potential, and then disseminate information about the ones that we think are the most useful and relevant. (- damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Oct 25, 2015) I see a sub-theme here: change management. Basically, endless innovation spurred by technology means that learning is a constant demand, in the workplace, and even in using one's new refrigerator. Innovation has become the norm; put differently, change is the New Normal. This implies the need for constant learning, but it also implies a kind of psychic and emotional change management. - edward.oneill edward.oneill Oct 25, 2015
Personalizing Learning
Personalized learning includes a wide variety of approaches to support self-directed and group-based learning that can be designed around each learner’s goals. Solving this challenge means incorporating into [instructional] activities concepts such as personalized learning environments and networks, adaptive learning tools, and more. Using a growing set of free and simple resources, such as a collection of apps on a tablet, it is already quite easy to support one’s ongoing social and professional learning and other activities with a collection of resources and tools that is always on hand. There are two paths of development for personalized learning: the first is organized by and for the learner, which includes apps, social media, and related software. Higher education goals and interests are driving the other path, primarily in the form of adaptive learning. In this pathway, adaptive learning is enabled by intervention-focused machine intelligence that interprets data about how a student is learning and responds by changing the learning environment based on their needs. While the concept of personalized learning is fairly fluid, it is becoming more and more clear that it is individualized by design, different from person to person, and built around a vision of lifelong learning. The issue with personalised learning is its interpretation - sometimes, it is understood to leaving people to figure stuff out themselves, when effective learning is guided, supported and challenging, but within the zome of proximal development. To that end, it can be personalised, but it implies small scale if it is to be properly meaningful. Some online/computer mediated self-paced stuff is about black and white information, not wrestling with grey and complex possibilities in meaning. - n.wright n.wright Oct 16, 2015 I believe personalised learning still does exist in some institutions, in some disciplines, particularly at Masters and/or PhD level, but the depersonalisation of learning, and standardisation of testing and assessment are the only practical ways to cope with the increasing volume of undergraduates, and this will only be exacerbated by the increase in completely online degree provision. The business model is beguilingly simple: Create online degree course, sign up students, take money, provide texts, set questions, use automated marking for assignments, when academic credit threshold is reached, send out PDF of degree certificate for them to print themselves attached to an email offering an exciting range of online masters degrees they are now eligible to purchase. Repeat ad nauseam. This is not the future of education, it is the present, and it keeps me awake at night. I know this may be controversial, but perhaps we should actually REDUCE the level of access to degree programmes, and develop other more practical and soft skills based qualifications that industry requires for those people who are doing a degree so they can get a "better" job at the end of it, and leave academic degrees for those who have a genuine aptitude for, and desire to pursue, the acquisition and creation of academic knowledge? Having just re-read what I have written, I should probably state at this point that this, and all other opinions expressed by me over the last couple of weeks are my own personal points of view, and do not represent the views of the institution(s) for which I work, and for which I hope to continue to work for many years to come.(- damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Oct 22, 2015) - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Oct 18, 2015 - ole ole Oct 19, 2015- Anastasios.A.ECONOMIDES Anastasios.A.ECONOMIDES Oct 23, 2015 - francisca francisca Oct 25, 2015 Reading those wonderfully complex responses makes me wonder whether "personalized learning" is akin to "digital literacy" in that we may need to see the challenge as "defining and fostering personal learning" rather than simply referring to "personal learning" as a challenge since we don't seem to have a clear-cut idea of what it really entails. Can't really do much about developing and nurturing it if our focus is so narrow or so broad that we can't agree on what it is and whether it's possible to make it work. (And, for the record, I would be very much in agreement with those who see personalized learning as a learner-centric approach grounded in a framework that contributes to the development of citizens capable of making the greatest possible positive contributions to the communities in which they live and work and play.)- paul.signorelli paul.signorelli Oct 23, 2015 - kelvin kelvin Oct 25, 2015 I wonder if there is a distinction to be made between "personalized" and "individualized." "Personal" implies intimacy in relation to personhood and meaning: I learn this because it means something to me. We know that's important for learning. "Individualized" suggest something more like tailoring or adapting the learning experience, not so much the content. Basically, "personalized" sounds like it's adding something to individualized learning that's not always there. - edward.oneill edward.oneill Oct 25, 2015

Rethinking the Roles of Instructors- david.c.gibson david.c.gibson Sep 29, 2015] Teachers are increasingly expected to be adept at a variety of technology-based and other approaches for content delivery, learner support, and assessment; to collaborate with other teachers both inside and outside their schools; to routinely use digital strategies in their work with students; to act as guides and mentors in to promote student-centered learning; and to organize their own work and comply with administrative documentation and reporting requirements. Students, along with their families, add to these expectations through their own use of technology to socialize, organize, and informally learn on a daily basis. The integration of technology into everyday life is causing many educational thought leaders argue that schools should be providing ways for students to continue to engage in learning activities, formal and informal, beyond the traditional school day. As this trend gathers steam, many schools across the world are rethinking the primary responsibilities of teachers. Related to these evolving expectations are changes in the ways teachers engage in their own continuing professional development, much of which involves social media and online tools and resources. While fully online schools are still relatively rare, an increasing number of teachers are using more hybrid and experiential learning exercises, and experimenting with social media and others ways of building learning communities. I would argue here that, whilst teachers (in Higher Education) certainly face challenges posed by a range of factors, the fact of 'change' (and the need to be adaptive to it) have always been a factor in the role of the good teacher. I think that has impacted is the pace of the change and the capacity of the community to respond to that change.- kevin.ashford-rowe kevin.ashford-rowe Oct 4, 2015 This point again also relates to digital literacy as well as blended learning. - helga helga Oct 7, 2015 - michael.lambert michael.lambert Oct 16, 2015 thinks our teacher hats are evolving and in some instances in a more revolutionized way...we need to 'learn/relearn' how to teach online, create lessons that are in a mobile format, develop 'blended learning' experiences, keep engagement alive in 'blog format', etc. - ole ole Oct 19, 2015 - Dougdar Dougdar Oct 23, 2015 - lkoster lkoster Oct 25, 2015 Very much see this as a core challenge that is affected by nearly every other challenge we're exploring here in the wiki.- paul.signorelli paul.signorelli Oct 23, 2015 The role of educators in education is constantly evolving, and is influenced by all sorts of exterior factors. In recent times, the U.K. has seen school education increasingly using test results as measures of success, and teaching become more and more about passing tests than about teaching children to think for themselves. This has had a knock on effect all the way up the educational tree, with students coming into HE with excellent exam results, but unable to think for themselves. As educators we need to decide what it is we want our students to be capabale of, and use any and every method at our diposal to make that happen. (- damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Oct 25, 2015) Deconstruction of the Teacher - michael.lambert michael.lambert Sep 30, 2015 Welcome to University of Internet. Teachers, artists, scientists, musicians and students design courses, place them in a module format, open to the public. The student follows the course outline to work through the lessons, receives immediate feedback and progresses to the next level at any time – no waiting. The Internet has transformed our tradition –attend university to advance your skills. Today, online courses are rated like products and the virtual campus is valued by businesses. Watching videos, collaborating with others online, and engaging in learning activities allows the students to meet the course objectives, often, without the teacher. The teacher is becoming marginalized and challenged, at the least, in the area of content delivery. Disruption is at the core of a teacher’s role; new jobs emerge. We have a proprietary LMS at UO (Global Ed department) that provides just this kind of platform. - deborah.cooke deborah.cooke Oct 15, 2015 Certainly the idea of teacher as deliver of content is fast becoming outmoded and irrelevant. However, the synthesis of ideas and their dissemination is still critical. What these developments indicate is the growing need to better understand how to facilitate deep thinking and adjust the teaching-learning continuum as needed. I suggest that there is a greater need than ever for educators at all levels who deeply understand teaching and learning. The recent OECD report on PISA results centred on the use of ICT in schools is a clear indicator of this ( - n.wright n.wright Oct 16, 2015 This is where faculty development is essential, and needs to be recognized by Higher Ed administrations as valuable time to spend for their faculty.- agermain agermain Oct 18, 2015 Well no wonder the academics live in fear of technology making them redundant. It will. But at what cost? The most important thing I learned at university was who I am, and that had far more to do with my face to face interactions with the academics and my fellow students than it had to do with reading books, passing tests and annual fact regurgitation in exams. I would much rather think about the RE-construction of the teacher - they should always have a part to play education. (- damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Oct 20, 2015) There remains a deep problem within faculty development itself. We've spent decades trying to reinvent teaching from above and results have, to put it mildly, disappointing. In many ways we are perpetuating the same problems we are ostensibly trying to address. We're trying to get teachers to stop lecturing by lecturing to them. It has been my experience that the most effective "professional development" comes from below - in other words from the teachers themselves. One example of this is the New Media Seminar, started by Gardner Campbell at Baylor in 2010. I've been facilitating this seminar at HCC for four years now and I've found that faculty, given the opportunity and support, tend to reinvent themselves in many cases. The outcomes are unpredictable but many of the participants in the seminar have assumed leadership positions within the faculty and are now in a position to implement some of the visions generated in the seminar discussions. There are leaders and followers in this process but if you can get a core of "bootstrappers" going, others will follow. - tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 21, 2015 Another challenge and hurdle is lowering the barriers to accessing technology. One of the most "revolutionary" and impactful things we've implemented over the last year has been our pilot of Penn State's One Button Studio. There is nothing revolutionary about the tech but the ease-of-use has attracted faculty to it like moths to a flame, both for their own use as well as an assignment tool for their students. If you create an environment of change, cultural shifts will start to happen and one day you'll look in the mirror and see that teachers have already deconstructed themselves and are remaking the educational environment - tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 21, 2015 - shaffeje shaffeje Oct 25, 2015 Labor issues? Also, thinking of the famous New Yorker Cartoon: "On the internet no one knows you're not a professor." Are we talking about the deprofessionalization of teaching and research? A leveling of the playing field which is beneficial? Or deceptive? - edward.oneill edward.oneill Oct 25, 2015 [Editor's Note: Added here from RQ3.]
Scaling Instructional Innovations
HIgher education organizations are not adept at moving teaching innovations into mainstream practice. Innovation springs from the freedom to connect ideas in new ways. Our schools and universities generally allow us to connect ideas only in prescribed ways — sometimes these lead to new insights, but more likely they lead to rote learning. Current organizational promotion structures rarely reward innovation and improvements in teaching and learning. A pervasive aversion to change limits the diffusion of new ideas, and too often discourages experimentation. (Well said! - kelvin kelvin Oct 25, 2015) I believe this to be a very important issue as, in my experience, much effort is often wasted on innovations (pedagogical and technological) which it is clear from the outset will not be capable of up-scaling when required. - kevin.ashford-rowe kevin.ashford-rowe Oct 4, 2015 - michael.lambert michael.lambert Oct 7, 2015 thinks we forget that failure is part of the equation/definition of innovation; thus, we aim for solutions, not innovation. Technology-based academic innovation (or solution-seeking if you prefer) is often in competition with other mission-critical IT needs such as migrations, upgrades, and security concerns. To core IT staff who have many challenges with existing technologies, setting up and scaling a new blogging platform seems risky and high-maintenance - a.gyorke a.gyorke Oct 22, 2015 Taking innovations, particularly those driven by faculty grass-roots efforts, to a sustainable level has always been a challenge. Even after there is recognition of the value on an innovative technique, faculty frequently need to compete amongst themselves for resources that do not scale to meet a growing demand. Enterprise solutions are usually top-down driven and they are frequently mismatched to truly innovative teaching. - billshewbridge billshewbridge Oct 24, 2015

Safety of Student Data
Safety of student data has long been a concern in K-12 education, which is evident through legislation that has been passed to safeguard students and their personal data, such as the federal Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act in the United States.106 As schools embrace ubiquitous technology, and more learning takes place online and in 1:1 settings, researchers see great potential to leverage these digital learning environments to mine data, which can be used to decipher trends in student behavior and create personalized software. Schools around the world are adopting cloud computing to support adaptive learning, promote cost-savings, and encourage collaboration, but sometimes the safety of student data is threatened when third-party vendors provide low-cost software as a service in return for access to student data that they then profit from. And this is underhand and potentially unethical behaviour - n.wright n.wright Oct 16, 2015 - Anastasios.A.ECONOMIDES Anastasios.A.ECONOMIDES Oct 23, 2015. With a trend to Everything as a service (Xaas) this is a very important issue. Institutions need to understand the relationship with suppliers, and have robust data governance - neil.witt neil.witt Oct 25, 2015 Security & Privacy A large amount of personal information (of students, teachers, or others) will be collected, communicated, stored and processed by third parties. However, the consequences regarding security and privacy are unknown. - Anastasios.A.ECONOMIDES Anastasios.A.ECONOMIDES Oct 23, 2015 - francisca francisca Oct 25, 2015 We do try and ensure sensitive date remains under our control, but with an increasing use of cloud based servers and software solutions such as Turnitin, the boundaries are becoming increasingly blurred, and the potential for data to be intercepted and us d by third parties increases incrementally. (- damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Oct 25, 2015)

Teaching Complex Thinking
It is essential for young people both to understand the networked world in which they are growing up and also — through computational thinking — to understand the difference between human and artificial intelligence, learn how to use abstraction and decomposition when tackling complex tasks, and deploy heuristic reasoning to complex problems. The semantic web, big data, modeling technologies, and other innovations make new approaches to training learners in complex and systems thinking possible. Yet, mastering modes of complex thinking does not make an impact in isolation; communication skills must also be mastered for complex thinking to be applied meaningfully. Indeed, the most effective leaders are outstanding communicators with a high level of social intelligence; their capacity to connect people with other people, using technologies to collaborate and leveraging data to support their ideas, requires an ability to understand the bigger picture and to make appeals that are based on logic, data, and instinct. The OECD report ( indicates the crucial need for learners to learn HOW to navigate digital texts, deal with issues of veracity and validity, and know ethical practices of using others' work. This report also indicates how important it is for teachers to keep their eye on learning how to think deeply. - n.wright n.wright Oct 16, 2015- rubenrp rubenrp Oct 26, 2015 Wish there was a for professors that reflected how much of the teacher's exam was rote/memorization vs critical/deeper thinking. - michael.lambert michael.lambert Oct 18, 2015 - ole ole Oct 19, 2015 - Dougdar Dougdar Oct 23, 2015

Under-resourced Campus Infrastructure
Critical school infrastructures are under-resourced. Rather than encouraging researchers to build on and extend core resources, leverage shared file systems, and open accessible service APIs, institutions are narrowing their focus to what they perceive as the minimal subset of enterprise services they can afford to sustain. As a result, educators are often trying to design new, innovative learning models that must be integrated with outdated, pre-existing technology and learning management systems. A continued challenge as more and more students are working off of personal devices on campus. - deborah.cooke deborah.cooke Oct 15, 2015
It's going to be harder for tuition-dependent institutions to do this as US enrollments plateau or drop. And by "tuition-dependent institutions" I mean "nearly all of them". - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Oct 18, 2015 - vforssman vforssman Nov 8, 2015as prep for voting I have been reading all the contributions - my contributions have been minimal this year, because during the month of October I was completely absorbed with writing a strat plan for my university, for the board's review, to make investment in information and educational technology infrastructure and services. The bottom line is a big squeeze is on, and many of the prognostications debated here are completely dependent on funding mechanisms - hard to just keep-the-lights-on, let alone plan for all this good stuff.

Added to RQ4 as a New Challenge
Plagiarism in Online Course Delivery
How to manage the growing incidents of plagiarism and the 'selling' of course seats in online courses? What methods to employ that are both effective and affordable for the institution? - deborah.cooke deborah.cooke Oct 15, 2015 Our institution requires students to submit work electronically through Moodle which then generates a Turnitin report. - n.wright n.wright Oct 16, 2015 The same goes for us - ole ole Oct 19, 2015 - Anastasios.A.ECONOMIDES Anastasios.A.ECONOMIDES Oct 23, 2015 We also use Turnitin via Blackboard to generate reports, but it is by no means foolproof, and is no substitute for academic rigour. However, with increasing volumes of script to mark, it it a convenient way to tick the plagiarism box. When you work with relatively small student numbers over a period of several years, you get to know them and what they are capable of. Couple this with your subject knowledge, and it becomes very clear when a piece of work has been plagiarised. This is not possible with huge online courses where you never get to meet the students, and so solutions like Turnitin are the only way forward. (- damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Oct 25, 2015) Is there really such thing as a Plagiarism detector? Turnitin and other are text matching services, Plagiarism is an academic offence and still requires a human judgement. Perhaps this is an opportunity for institutions to think about how and why they assess? - neil.witt neil.witt Oct 25, 2015 Agree - while plagiarism is an issue, it is also true that part of the problem lies with modes of assessment that stress rote memorization or the production of rote response work. In that context, it can be argued that the process and role of independent thought and creation is devalued to a degree where plagiarism is more likely to be seen as a lesser offense by students.- rubenrp rubenrp Oct 26, 2015

Accessibility in Online Education
With new mandates for accessibility in all online resources, how can institutions quickly, effectively and affordably create workflows to create fully captioned/transcripted videos and other accessible items? - deborah.cooke deborah.cooke Oct 15, 2015 This will become an increasingly important challenge in the US. - JoanLippincott JoanLippincott - francisca francisca Oct 25, 2015 - kelvin kelvin Oct 25, 2015

Diversified Revenue Sources
In order to keep tuition reasonable in a time of declining state reimbursements and resistance to additional taxes of any sort, colleges need to look to alternative revenue models to sustain the core educational mission. The good news is that these revenue models also carry with them in many instances alternative educational experiences for their students. Technology plays a role in this as both a driving factor as well as an enabler for some of these systems. At our West Houston Institute we're looking at selling memberships to our MakerSpace as well as renting out our Film Studio, Photography Studio, Collaboratorium and Conference Center to the community. Funds raised in this way may be plowed back into the revenue model as one way to defray tuition costs. I am sure there are many other opportunities in this area. Right now, the issue is largely one of mindset and administrative and legal challenges but it is one that many institutions will have to face. Bringing the outside world into these spaces presents real educational opportunities for our students. They will have contact with entrepreneurs, opportunities for internships, as well as exposure to outside speakers and conferences so there are reasons to do this outside of revenue. - tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 20, 2015 Do we really need to diversify our revenue sources? If so, why? Have our institutions become so large and flabby that we need to increase the money coming in so that we may continue to succeed? Perhaps we need to look at where the money is going, and ensure that it is spent more effectively rather than look at ways to bring more in? (- damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Oct 25, 2015) This isn't just about making money, it's also about bringing our institutions more effectively into the communities that they serve. That connects the institution to the community by making its value proposition more explicit as well as giving our students direct exposure to the communities in which they will have will have to find jobs, create businesses, and, in general, live. I think the future is going to emphasize buffet just-in-time education and I can certainly see our students developing into lifelong "customers" as they come back for periodic skills updates or to use our spaces to develop their own creations or ideas. If you look at how lifelong learning actually works (there was a librarian who showed a chart at one of the Horizon retreats that I've never been able to find), the balance between formal and informal learning is not even close. One of our great missed opportunities is inserting ourselves into that informal learning stream. That can be a source of revenue as graduates use our MakerSpaces, take informal course modules, host events in our meeting spaces, start up their businesses with our our entrepreneurship and brainstorming resources, etc. That's an important part of the equation here as well. Finally, I disagree with the assertion that we can't earn more while at the same time looking for efficiencies. Having more rigor in how we allocate resources is going to be part of the model going forward. At the same time, the days of education ignoring the economics of the education business are over. The trick will be funding those parts of education that are not easily quantifiable (becoming a better citizen, member of society, human, etc.) can be funded. Earning revenue off of those parts that are more easily quantified (enrollment, memberships, space rentals, etc.) can help fund the parts that the general public and most legislators that elect seem unable to wrap their heads around. - tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 25, 2015

Quality Assurance in EducationThe challenge is how technology could improve quality in higher education. It is important to consider Quality Assurance at all levels and dimensions of the Educational system: 1) Government or Organization that provides the educational policy, educational model, administration, laws, planning, funding etc. 2) School or E-Platform that provides the environment, infrastructure, services, organization, operation, supporting staff etc. 3) Academic Programme or Curriculum that describes the structure/organization of the curriculum. 4) Course Syllabus that describes the objectives, content and organization of the course, assessment type, grading policy etc. 5) Educational Material that provides the reading/assignments material, experiments, labs, exercises, etc. 6) Teacher who provides teaching, mentoring, guidance etc. 7) Student who learns develops skills, etc. All the above levels are interrelated and each one depends on others. In order to ensure quality at a level, one should ensure quality at other levels too. Technology could help at all these levels. Usually, reseachers and practicioners exploit technology at levels 2, 5, 6 and 7. However, technology could be also used at the other levels. - Anastasios.A.ECONOMIDES Anastasios.A.ECONOMIDES Oct 23, 2015
CommunicatIon Barriers and Strategies
- tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 23, 2015 In a recent article in the The Observer, CUNY Professor Jeff Jarvis pointed out that no one uses the homepage anymore. No one goes to anymore, for instance. They get their information in a distributed fashion and the home site is merely a database repository of the information. Yet I sat through a meeting yesterday where the entire purpose of it was creating an attractive homepage that serves as a clearinghouse for information on startup resources. These were relatively technically savvy people but they didn't recognize the paradigm shift. Getting them to understand a new paradigm will probably be much harder than the technical aspects of the project. This is both a challenge and a meta-challenge. Developing paradigm-shifting communication strategies is going to be a central stretch challenge for technologists going forward. We need to teach our constituents and ourselves how to effectively use the communications tools made available to us by technology. Visual literacy is one part of that. Network literacy is another.
There are many other challenges and technologies in various parts of this wiki that bear directly on this challenge. However, the biggest challenge here will be convincing the rest of the world that this challenge exists in the first place. As I tweeted this morning: In a paradigm-shifted world communication becomes your biggest challenge because few minds perceive reality at the speed of change. - tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 23, 2015 - michael.lambert michael.lambert Oct 24, 2015 says, thank you, Tom for this deeper thinking. - michael.lambert michael.lambert Oct 24, 2015 - shaffeje shaffeje Oct 25, 2015 Our students tell us they are overwhelmed with information, particularly via email, and for a recent event that I organised, the most effective method of telling the students it was happening turned out to be flyers and posters, both of which have have fallen out of favour in recent years which, ironically, makes them more effective than e-methods. Just because we can send out emails/tweets etc. to everyone, does not mean we necessarily should, and perhaps we need to think more carefully about who is able to click that send button, in order to avoid information overload, and the wheat getting lost amongst the chaff. (- damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Oct 25, 2015) McLuhan didn't say use this communications mechanism and discard the rest. We still listen to radio, read books, and admire archaic bits of tint smeared on yellowing canvases. It is trebly important these days to understand media, the menu of options available to you and how your choices effect the message on the other end. - tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 25, 2015 This is a very good point about being overwhelmed with information. Students often comment they don't read all the emails because there is too many (and are too long). We have the ability to communicate in ways that are easier than ever, yet, we over use them and they get ignored. I have started using an online service allowing me to send texts to students that are bite sized (max 140 characters like a tweet) and students like that better. - lkoster lkoster Oct 25, 2015 Writing shorter is often harder than writing longer. Can you get your point across in 140 characters or less? A useful skill for both students and faculty. :-) - tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 25, 2015

Casualization of Academic Work
The most populous group of American professors are adjuncts, working part-time, hired and fired at will. Tenure and tenure-track profs are now a shrinking minority. At the same time, similar pressures are felt among IT, library, and other support staff populations. Several states (Wisconsin) and systems are pressing hard on tenure, including tenure status for librarians. Surely this changed labor environment has negative effects on education and technology. Morale suffers; it's harder to higher the best talent; it's more difficult to maintain long-term projects; etc. - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Oct 25, 2015- francisca francisca Oct 25, 2015 I'm not sure I agree with this being a negative effect that drains morale. For long-term residential faculty that have settled into a comfortable position and their ways - yes. Buy maybe, this is one way to initiate a paradigm shift and get educators thinking about a different model for higher education. I obviously don't have the right solution (but share an idea below) but I see tenured faculty as being a huge barrier in many situations. They are protecting their position and not doing what is right for students. I don't really blame them because a residential faculty position is a dream job for many. However, I have been trained to challenge status quo when the system is being stressed in order to get folks thinking outside the box. In addition, I agree with Tom below. We likely need to redefine what it means to be an adjunct and I think that would start with the pay structure. For example, what if there are true partnerships with industry and "faculty" as a full-time industry employee and faculty at the same time? That way they work in the area that they teach and are constantly current with experience of the industry. In addition, the industry always has highly trained employees that are teaching and training future employees and conducting scholarly research for the industry. The "faculty" member would be full-time but using a different model. Would they be considered residential or adjunct? Depends on how it is defined and the agreement between the industry partner and higher institution. I know there has been grant work done in this area where faculty partner and work in industry during the summer months but it would be interesting to see a different model of this idea that could be implemented during the academic year. Does anyone know of a model that has been tried? - shaffeje shaffeje Oct 25, 2015
Maybe the solution is to redefine what it means to be adjunct. Rigid definitions of roles are a product of industrialized society and we're edging past that now. Our staffing and over-reliance on part-time labor goes right at the core of our economic model so I don't expect an easy change here but every member of our community - whether they be part-time or full-time - brings with them a value. Not all may ultimately be suited for the classroom (and one of the things we use the adjunct status for is evaluating the suitability of people to teach) but most can have some role to play. Maybe the adjunct who is bad in front of large groups or the management of class logistics is better suited to tutoring, for instance. I've seen otherwise challenged faculty excel in unconventional roles. The trick here is taking a clear-eyed view of our staffing structures and reimagining how they could work with a more holistic educational vision in mind. Possibly more than we want to tackle in this venue but something that I think is coming due to the stresses the system is under right now. Thanks for raising this, Bryan. - tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 25, 2015

Complexity of Copyright and Fair Use
What workflows can institutions adopt to teach faculty how to interpret the doctrine of 'fair use' and how to apply for copyright clearances as needed for their use of copyrighted video online? - deborah.cooke deborah.cooke Oct 15, 2015 With the advent of TPPP this is going to be much more complex than it is now. Educators in New Zealand have ETV for example, which provides access to television and movies for educational purposes. These items can be requested, downloaded, and annotated using a tool called Zaption. - n.wright n.wright Oct 16, 2015 - michael.lambert michael.lambert Oct 16, 2015 Good point about TPP. - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Oct 18, 2015
Agree this is an important challenge. I think that we may see more activity from students asking (or demanding) open access textbooks or other open access learning materials (OER) instead of being forced to buy very expensive textbooks, especially for introductory courses in subjects they have no intention of continuing to study. However, education of faculty, and their willingness to be "open" to "open access" continues to be a big challenge. Many faculty unfortunately have mistakenly decided that open access means poorer quality and/or not subject to peer review, neither of which can genuinely be equated with open access. - JoanLippincott JoanLippincott Oct 17, 2015 This is already a frequent request by students in US Higher Ed institutions, as well as the possibility, offered now by more publishers, to access only certain chapters of an online textbook. Publishers are adapting very quickly to this new way of looking at a (text)book not as an entity, but as a composite of materials for which access is partially given. The concept of learning objects is now part of the publishers' offers.- agermain agermain Oct 18, 2015 - kelvin kelvin Oct 25, 2015 - Anastasios.A.ECONOMIDES Anastasios.A.ECONOMIDES Oct 23, 2015 Fair use does not exist In The U.K. and copyright remains a huge barrier within education, particularly in subject areas that cannot avoid the use of copyrighted materials e.g. How can you teach music or art without riding roughshod over copyright laws? Publishers have indeed embraced the new, keen to develop new revenue streams by recycling their materials and producing online versions that can be accessed but at a cost. The credibility of OERs remains a problem - who is maintaining quality control? Once you have peer review, you need money to pay for it, which then means the resources themselves must be paid for, at which point they are no longer OERs. (- damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Oct 25, 2015) - francisca francisca Oct 25, 2015 Accessibility, copyright, intellectual property, and privacy are among the few key practices we are changing the Internet rather than it changing us. I am reminded of a quote by Scott Cleland (Forbes contributor) “the common thread for how the world is changing the Internet is that the world is making the Internet less universal in one way or another in order to address various concerns.” Regardless of how legislation and practices are changed, there is a strong tie to the previously mentioned challenge of improving digital literacy. First and foremost, mechanisms (networked community, professional development, tools, etc.) to help develop the attitude and abilities of a digital literate person in times of hiatus (with pending court rulings and such) are necessary. Open Education. In Open Education, people have open, shared, free of barriers and obstacles (social, cultural, economical, technological, personal diabilities etc.) access, use and management of educational resources (e.g. data, information, knowledge, software, books, articles, presentations, video, courses, teaching methods, teachers). They openly share resources, communicate and collaborate among themselves. - Anastasios.A.ECONOMIDES Anastasios.A.ECONOMIDES Oct 23, 2015 Whilst philosophiclly appealing, as I have stated in previous sections, somebody somewhere has to pay for Open Education. Whilst we may see it as a philanthropic gesture on our part, perhaps with a side order of marketing, the people who pay for our core services may not even know that we do it and unless we ask them, we have no way of knowing how they feel about us giving away resources created using their money. There are also question marks over who is accessing these resources, and for what purpose. A large part of the developing world who would benefit the most from access to these resources have no infrastructure with which to do so. We may think we are educating the world, but really we are just education the bit that has already received traditional education, which makes our philanthropic gesture a whole lot less effective. (- damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Oct 25, 2015)

Demographic Transformation
Major population changes are occurring and could transform education. More developed nations (Japan, northern Europe, the United States, Canada) are "graying", seeing their senior population grow while the numbers of children and teenagers shrink. At the same time many developing nations in the global south (Africa, southeast Asia, parts of Latin America) are experiencing a youth boom, accompanied by relatively small numbers of elders. The first group faces the challenge of maintaining academic finances while its classic constituency dwindles; the second, how to expand access to high quality post-secondary education. - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Oct 19, 2015 - tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 21, 2015 The Asian population continues to swell, relocate and adapt to new learning environments. - michael.lambert michael.lambert Oct 24, 2015 The increase in International students poses additional issues such as language and cultural differences within the classroom and helping students to adapt to a new country. - lkoster lkoster Oct 25, 2015

Combined with Existing RQ3 Trends

Changes in Learning Spaces
Whether in classroom building or libraries, I don't think we should underestimate the resources required to make major changes in learning spaces, especially throughout a campus. Even large universities frequently have less than 5 problem-based learning classrooms (in the sense that we think of them today with technological capabilities). It takes a lot of money and some time to transform classrooms, and because they seat fewer students in the same amount of space, many campus facility planners will not approve such plans. When the new style classrooms are opened, many universities (professional staff) complain that faculty sign up to hold their classes there merely because of the nice ambiance and not because they will be using different pedagogy. While some universities put training programs and requirements in place for faculty use of those rooms, it is not universal. In libraries, again, costly renovations may be desired but are often put on hold while fundraising efforts are made and approvals from campus or state facilities units are sought. When the facilities are renovated, often so much time has been invested into planning the physical space that new types of programs in those spaces have not been developed to genuinely take advantage of the new technologies and configurations. There are many challenges in this area. - JoanLippincott JoanLippincott Oct 17, 2015 I agree. The design of learning spaces in Higher Ed institutions is still a huge challenge, which slows down the adoption of active pedagogies with a smooth integration of technology in learning situations. - agermain agermain Oct 18, 2015 - lkoster lkoster Oct 25, 2015 - michael.lambert michael.lambert Oct 18, 2015 Of course, if Bryan is correct and we've hit peak enrollment those same overcrowded classrooms might seem a lot larger. - tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 20, 2015 Since it's probably obvious to many of us that spaces support or hinder the way we approach the learning process, this is another of the many major challenges deserving out attention. Tom Haymes' work in documenting and helping shape the changes that are occurring remain a strong, positive source of inspiration for me.- paul.signorelli paul.signorelli Oct 23, 2015 [Editor's Note: This fits into existing RQ3 Trend: Rethinking Learning Spaces.]

Other Insights

University Governance
The economics and politics of education have changed, and continue to change rapidly, in part because of dramatic changes in information and communication tech. Universities on the whole, have been slow to adapt to this -- in part because of weaknesses in university governance, and in part because of a paradoxical reluctance by universities to apply the rigor of the subjects they teach to the design, operation and evaluation of teaching itself. See for thoughtful reviews: and "he Troubled Future of Colleges and Universities”" in