What is the Flipped Classroom?

The flipped classroom refers to a model of learning that rearranges how time is spent both in and out of class to shift the ownership of learning from the educators to the students. In the flipped classroom model, valuable class time is devoted to more active, project-based learning where students work together to solve local or global challenges — or other real-world applications — to gain a deeper understanding of the subject. Rather than the instructor using class time to dispense information, that work is done by each student after class, and could take the form of watching video lectures, listening to podcasts, perusing enhanced e-book content, or collaborating with peers in online communities. Students access the online tools and resources any time they need them. Faculty can then devote more time to interacting with each individual. After class, students manage the content they use, the pace and style of learning, and the ways in which they demonstrate their knowledge; the instructor adapts instructional and collaborative approaches to suit their learning needs and personal learning journeys. The goal is for students to learn more authentically by doing. The flipped classroom model is part of a larger pedagogical movement that overlaps with blended learning, inquiry-based learning, and other instructional approaches and tools that are meant to be flexible, active, and more engaging for students.

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(1) How might this technology be relevant to the educational sector you know best?

  • The arguments for FC are almost legion. But the common denominator is: Active learning is the only real efficient way of learning, and without a format that not only allows the students to work independently but also force them to, we are stuck with the hypodermic pedagogy of the past. FC delivers such an innovative and learning conducting format.- ole ole Sep 29, 2015 Agreeing with Ole here that it's an important part of a very successful approach to learning, and I also believe it is rapidly moving beyond being a horizon/Horizon technology. I see aspects of the model being used in quite a few venues, including workplace learning opportunities that combine elements of onsite and online learning into a cohesive learning process.- paul.signorelli paul.signorelli Oct 13, 2015
  • it refocuses on what it means to learn well. Yes - ole ole Oct 5, 2015
  • implies greater pedagogical understanding on the part of faculty. Yes - ole ole Oct 5, 2015
  • requires students to have guides for why they watching/reading a specific text in order to benefit from the follow-up sessions - n.wright n.wright Sep 29, 2015
  • The group flippedlearning.org makes an important distinction between Flip classroom and Flip learning, arguing that a Flip classroom "can, but does not necessarily, lead to Flipped Learning”. Flipped Learning is defined as a “pedagogical approach in which direct instruction moves from the group learning space to the individual learning space, and the resulting group space is transformed into a dynamic, interactive learning environment where the educator guides students as they apply concepts and engage creatively in the subject matter.” (FLN, 2014). I like this definition and the use of the term Flip Learning, as it forces a focus on the design of the learning environment, and on active learning activities (and not just on reversing moments of teaching and learning). This approach, and any tools and technologies that support collaborative learning, adaptive learning, inquiry learning, online simulations, but also technologies that helps the student track and monitor his own learning are essential for this approach. - agermain agermain Oct 1, 2015 A very good distinction. - ole ole Oct 5, 2015 - helga helga Oct 6, 2015
  • This model is especially useful for both the active learning component and the fact that it is helping institutions more effectivly use classroom space and resources. - deborah.cooke deborah.cooke Oct 12, 2015 - shaffeje shaffeje Oct 13, 2015 - lkoster lkoster Oct 22, 2015
  • I'm concerned that this term has become to kitschy. No one has ever been to explain to me how this differs from what we were always supposed to be doing. For instance, at what point did we stop requiring students to do homework and readings before class? I've been teaching a "flipped" classroom for most of my teaching career as I quickly learned how ineffective lecture was in achieving actual learning. It's only a question of degree. I worry about this terminology being too fashionable and therefore rendered passé when the next big thing comes along. It also distracts from fundamental evaluation of what is working what is not working in the context of our instructional methods. - tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 19, 2015~
  • Well it is always good to see old friends, and the concept of flipped classrooms has been with us for a good few years now hasn't it?! However, it seems to have made little headway here in the UK. I believe of the problem is that the majority of academics continue to teach in the way they themselves were taught, i.e. preaching from the pulpit to their passive parishioners. However, it is not entirely their fault, as they have often received little or no training to teach before they are wheeled out in front of a class of students, so they fall back on traditional paradigms, as that is all they know. Chalk and talk is still the prevailing style, and will continue to be so for the foreseeable future unless academics are properly trained, and actively encouraged to change the way they do things by their institutions. (- damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Oct 20, 2015) We see lots of push back from professors who don't want to change. Training is important to help them see the benefits - lkoster lkoster Oct 22, 2015
  • Wanting to second/third the feeling of faddishness around flipping. There is such a robust literature/research base around blended learning in its full complexity, flipped classroom still seems like a least common denominator frame for a much more rich conversation. - dicksonk dicksonk Oct 20, 2015 - lkoster lkoster Oct 22, 2015
  • I see the "flipped classroom" increasing being converted into hybrid/blended learning. A great motivator is, as said above, for institutions to save on classroom space. However, the flipped classroom, for appropriate courses, is far more effective than traditional teaching. - lkoster lkoster Oct 22, 2015

(2) What themes are missing from the above description that you think are important?

  • the kinds of infrastructure to enable this - it is not just about putting up a pre-recorded lecture to talk about. - n.wright n.wright Sep 29, 2015
  • Faculty Development is essential. Flipped learning shifts the paradigm from teaching to learning, and a lot of faculty still need to understand this change. And using Flipped Faculty Development is a way to do it. - agermain agermain Oct 1, 2015 - lkoster lkoster Oct 22, 2015
  • There needs to be careful instructional design so that there is effective interplay between the online and f2f work. - deborah.cooke deborah.cooke Oct 12, 2015
  • It's worth noting that even Sams and Bergmann, who did so much to popularize the model, are recognizing that a strong focus on recorded lectures isn't the only way to approach the Flipped Classroom model, as we see in this quote from the article "Flipped Learning: Maximizing Face Time," from the February 2014 issue of T&D Magazine online: "We often talk about the use of video as an instructional tool, but realize that much of the dialogue about flipped learning has been about videos. One of the big mistakes we made when we pioneered this model is that we focused too much on video. We now like to use the term “learning object” when we talk about the flipped classroom. A learning object can include videos, but it also can be resources such as online simulations, books, and periodicals."- paul.signorelli paul.signorelli Oct 13, 2015
  • The flipped classroom model requires the faculty to really shift their mindset from a lecturer to that of a coach. Faculty development is critical and needs to focus on applying active learning strategies in the classrooms. My experience is that faculty continue to see the flipped classroom approach as one that requires them to give up control of the classroom. Most faculty have limited knowledge of how to plan for and create an active learning experience within and beyond the classroom. Advances in video technology allow for a variety of ways to make watching the videos an active rather than a passive activity. Students on the US campuses come from a variety of educational experiences and backgrounds and also require prep and introduction to this model. - Maya Maya Oct 18, 2015Maya
  • Some excellent points raised here. I might also add that one of the recurring themes that comes up time and time again when I speak to academics is their paranoia regarding the gradual erosion of their traditional roles facilitated by the introduction of new technologies e.g. they seem to be under the impression that if they record their lectures, they are effectively making themselves redundant, and some seem to believe that their institutions will keep the videos and get rid of them completely. To flip that on its head (!) perhaps the ONLY way to ensure your survival in HE in the 21st century is to embrace the new technologies, and ensure you deliver the best education possible, using all of the available resources?! After all, isn't that what we are supposed to be all about? (- damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Oct 20, 2015)

(3) What do you see as the potential impact of this technology on education and interpretation in museums?

  • I take it you're aiming at HE and not museums :-).
    FC depends on the use of technology: a good structure for the programme/course based on a flexible LMS and extensive use of teaching/learning technologies: blended learning, that is. As to the structure I'd like to recommend R. Dee Finks Creating Significant Learning Experiences (Jossey-Bass, 2003) or his smaller and very instructive IDEA paper ( http://ideaedu.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Idea_Paper_42.pdf). - ole ole Sep 29, 2015
  • There are more and more studies reporting about the positive impact of flipped / active learning on student learning. (see for instance: A Review of Flipped Learning) A few however show that results are not always as positive, like for instance the report published by Educause in January 2015 (https://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/sei1501.pdf) about a 2 year study for Engineering and Math courses using Flipped learning. The results did not show any statistically significant differences in student learning, contrary to what was expected. What Flipped learning did, however, was to helped faculty question their teaching practices and improve on it. So one of the important impacts of adoption of flipped learning approach and the use of technologies to facilitate this approach, is to incite/help faculty change their teaching practices to favor more active learning strategies (PBL, Case Studies, Collaborative, Cooperative, etc.). Another impact of Flipped learning is the redefinition of time and place it implies (individual time/space, collaborative time/space, reflecting time, problem solving time, etc.) which could lead to a redefinition or a questioning of instructional time/credit (leading towards more competency based programs in Higher Education). - agermain agermain Oct 1, 2015. - shaffeje shaffeje Oct 13, 2015 These two sides are exactly what the GoOnline-course at my center aims at - see below(http://cul.au.dk/kurser/go-online-course-on-blended-learning/). - ole ole Oct 5, 2015
  • I see this as a growing trend. Much research supports its efficacy seems to indicate that students prefer this model. - deborah.cooke deborah.cooke Agreeing with Deborah that there are plenty of reasons to believe it can be effective; also strongly believe that it increases our ability to more effectively use the time we have "face to face" (syncronously) with our learners onsite as well as online.- paul.signorelli paul.signorelli Oct 13, 2015 - lkoster lkoster Oct 22, 2015
  • I believe the only real way forward with this idea is to spend time, effort and money educating our teaching staff about these "new" pedagogical ideas actually using these ideas and techniques, so that they can experience it for themselves. I have lost count of how many courses I have been on, or presentations I have attended, including ones about flipping classrooms, that rely on non-flipped delivery methods, the irony of which seems to escape both the presenters and the attendees. (- damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Oct 20, 2015)

(4) Do you have or know of a project working in this area?

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