Research Question 3: Key Trends Accelerating Technology Adoption in Higher Education

What trends do you expect to have a significant impact on the ways in which higher education institutions approach their core mission of teaching, learning, and creative inquiry?

INSTRUCTIONS: Enter your responses to the questions below. This is most easily done by moving your cursor to the end of the last item and pressing RETURN to create a new bullet point. Please include URLs whenever you can (full URLs will automatically be turned into hyperlinks; please type them out rather than using the linking tools in the toolbar.

NOTE: The Key Trends are sorted into three categories: short-term impact, mid-term impact, and long-term impact.

Short-Term Impact Trends
These are trends that are driving edtech adoption now, but will likely remain important for only next one to two years. Virtual Worlds was an example of a fast trend that swept up attention in 2007-8.

Mid-Term Impact Trends
These trends will be important in decision-making for a longer term, and will likely continue to be a factor in decision-making for the next three to five years.

Long-Term Impact Trends
These are trends that will continue to have impact on our decisions for a very long time. Many of them have been important for years, and continue to be so. These are the trends -- like mobile or social media -- that continue to develop in capability year over year.

As you review what others have written, please add your thoughts and comments as well.

Please "sign" your contributions by marking with the code of 4 tildes (~) in a row so that we can follow up with you if we need additional information or leads to examples- this produces a signature when the page is updated, like this: - Sam Sam Jul 1, 2013


Compose your entries like this:

Trend Name
Add your ideas here with a few of sentences description including full URLs for references (e.g. http://horizon.nmc.org). And do not forget to sign your contribution with 4 ~ (tilde) characters!


Advancing Cultures of Change and Innovation
Many thought leaders have long believed that schools can play a major role in the growth of national economies. In order to breed innovation and adapt to economic needs, schools must be structured in ways that allow for flexibility, and spur creativity and entrepreneurial thinking. There is a growing consensus among many thought leaders that school leadership and curricula could benefit from agile startup models. Educators are working to develop new approaches and programs based on these models that stimulate top-down change and can be implemented across a broad range of institutional settings. In the business realm, the Lean Startup movement uses technology as a catalyst for promoting a culture of innovation in a more widespread, cost-effective manner, and provides compelling models for school leaders to consider. - michael.lambert michael.lambert Sep 30, 2015 - billshewbridge billshewbridge Oct 20, 2015thinks: Crowdsourcing can be a great catalyst for advancing this trend...linking the universities and businesses. We also need to consider how colleges integrate into communities to stimulate creativity and innovation. One of the central missions we have been working on with our new West Houston Institute campus is how to bring the community into the facility by selling memberships to the MakerSpace, events in the Conference Center, renting out the Conference and Collaboratorium. We hope that the innovation that happens on the campus bleeds to larger community and that the innovation from community, in the form of visiting entrepreneurs for instance, make their way into the student experience. - tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 22, 2015 Indeed, at the University of Central Florida several strategic innovation and entrepreneurship programs have been in the works to bring students, faculty, and business together. Students have access to the Blackstone Launchpad for coaching and seminars to explore the startup possibilities for their ideas. Also, the UCF iCorps NSF program https://icorps.cie.ucf.edu has successfully facilitated its third cohort of student, faculty and business mentor to foster innovation. It has been interesting and inspiring to see these groups make contributions in the health and physical sciences for sure. I see Bill’s point of crowdsourcing valuable as well. Definitely, innovation and the entrepreneurial spirit to push to market all the many great ideas and solutions for the good of society is a trend that will remain for the next few years to come. - francisca francisca Oct 25, 2015 Many colleges offer programs for students to incubate new business ideas and teach entrepreneurship skills. When higher ed starts adopting some of those practices in how institutions function, respond to changing needs of society and students, and how they work to improve outcomes for students -- that's when I think it will get really interesting. - kvogt kvogt Oct 15, 2015 - tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 25, 2015 Higher education needs to become more entrepreneurial pairing with community and state industry leaders to ensure a seamless academic path (and preparation orientation) into the real needs of business and development. - deborah.cooke deborah.cooke Oct 15, 2015 Our centre for Entrepreneurship has steadily grown since we opened it a few years ago. We have a great program that brings together students (and their business ideas) and industry partners to help students turn their ideas into real business ventures. - lkoster lkoster Oct 22, 2015 - Sam Sam Oct 16, 2015 Another idea is the Skynet economy where low-altitude satellites will give affordable broadband access to the unconnected billions....Facebook is headed in this direction. - michael.lambert michael.lambert Oct 17, 2015 - ole ole Oct 19, 2015 Partnership with industry could lead to the mass eradication of programmes in the arts which are deemed less useful to our partners than those in business, medicine or engineering, and should be approached with extreme caution. I am all for working with industry. Long as it remains a junior partner - as soon as it stops informing the curriculum and starts dictating it, we are all in trouble (- damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Oct 20, 2015)- Anastasios.A.ECONOMIDES Anastasios.A.ECONOMIDES Oct 23, 2015 I think divorcing ourselves from business is a big mistake. I agree that running an educational institution like a business does not work. However, I think that businesses often benefit from greater exposure to a more balanced (read: outside the business school) world. Steve Jobs once famously said that great things happen at the intersection of technology and the liberal arts. Successful businesses these days recognize that and exposing them more effectively to the liberal arts, the sciences, and the humanities in general only benefits our society. Remember that should be a two-way street. - tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 25, 2015 One of my latest challenges is getting our internal entrepreneurship program leaders to start thinking about how to turn their skills and programs inward. They're used to thinking of this in more "traditional" business terms: How do you write a business plan? How do you secure funding? How do you do accounting? etc. For several years here I've advocated looking at entrepreneurship more through the lens of the Lean Startup Movement, where your first consideration is evaluating resources and pivots and using the scientific method to analyze your successes and failures. It also encourages you to evaluate resources as both money and time. This significantly widens the applicability to the concept. For instance, one of my own "startups" has been to try to get my Teaching Innovation Lab off the ground. In this model, we give teachers "time" to evaluate what they're doing in their classes, try experiments, evaluate those experiments and then provide resources in the form of collaboration with other professors, innovative teaching spaces (which will also be tested), and historical data from other teachers engaging in the same effort. I firmly believe that this is the best way to reinvent teaching: from the bottom. But in the context of this discussion, this effort was fundamentally informed by entrepreneurial principles. - tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 25, 2015 - shaffeje shaffeje Oct 25, 2015- rubenrp rubenrp Oct 26, 2015
Entrepreneurship on campus - We are witnessing a high growth of Student Startups at US Colleges and Universities. Hackathons and entrepreneurial centers are offering a variety of programming geared towards undergraduate and graduate students interested in creating a startup. In experiential learning courses and booth-camps students are introduced to design thinking and prototyping. Student startups are increasingly seen as a way for students to bring innovation to the college campus. Universities talks to prospect students now include the pride, resources and ability to connect or incubate startups on campus. Here are some examples: 1. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/robert-hatta/what-entrepreneurship-smells-like_b_6150954.html 2. http://www.fastcoexist.com/3042566/the-next-hot-trend-on-campus-creating-innovation 3. http://www.symmetry50.com/blog/2014/10/28/top-25-entrepreneur-colleges - Maya Maya Oct 18, 2015Maya Georgieva These programmes from mu university might be of interest http://btech.au.dk/en/education/bachelor/#c39803, http://btech.au.dk/en/education/master/#c14724. - ole ole Oct 19, 2015
Perhaps we can combine this with Authentic Assessment, and get students to create something real and really useful instead of piles of (real or digital) paper in order to earn their qualifications? (- damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Oct 20, 2015) I think that tackling real-world problems and applying authentic assessment is incredibly important, however in the US Entrepreneurship on campus is being supported in very specific ways beyond the classroom through Hackathons, coding booth camps and the opening of spaces where students can meet and receive coaching from experienced entrepreneurs. At NYU we have students developing mobile and web apps that rival established technology company solutions and are being adopted by faculty in the classroom. My observation is that similar entrepreneurial labs/spaces and activities take place in other universities.- Maya Maya Oct 21, 2015 - lkoster lkoster Oct 25, 2015 Entrepreneurship underpins much of what we are trying to do, both inside and outside the classroom. On one level, we are supporting student and community entrepreneurship in the form that Damian points out. However, I think we often overlook opportunities to extend that thinking into our own processes. Teachers need to be entrepreneurial as they reinvent what they are doing in the classroom. This included an iterative process of trying things out and objectively evaluating their efficacy as well as pivoting in much the same way as a successful entrepreneur might do. This also applies to the larger question of reinventing our institutions around a much more flexible way of doing business. Entrepreneurial strategies should inform all of these processes. - tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 21, 2015 - michael.lambert michael.lambert Oct 24, 2015 This topic could probably be folded into the other Entrepreneurship topic above. - tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 25, 2015

Growing Focus on Measuring Learning
There is an increasing interest in using new sources of data for personalizing the learning experience, for ongoing formative assessment of learning, and for performance measurement; this interest is spurring the development of a relatively new field — data-driven learning and assessment. A key element of this trend is learning analytics, the application of web analytics, a science used by businesses to analyze commercial activities that leverages big data to identify spending trends and predict consumer behavior. Education is embarking on a similar pursuit into data science with the aim of learner profiling, a process of gathering and analyzing large amounts of detail about individual student interactions in online learning activities. The goal is to build better pedagogies, empower students to take an active part in their learning, target at-risk student populations, and assess factors affecting completion and student success. For learners, educators, and researchers, learning analytics is already starting to provide crucial insights into student progress and interaction with online texts, courseware, and learning environments used to deliver instruction. Data-driven learning and assessment will build on those early efforts. --- Certainly a big trend. In Germany, however, there is also a strong position on privacy of data, not least among students. It remains to be seen to what extent or under which conditions learning analytics will be accepted.- helga helga Oct 7, 2015 Privacy backlash has already hit in the US, in K-12. - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Oct 18, 2015 I think the trend, now, is heading into how the data measuring learning is used. What should faculty, staff, and students do when they know a student is at risk? When they see a trend around particular success factors? Which interventions are most effective in helping learners learn? - kvogt kvogt Oct 15, 2015 I do think that this trend in the short term is going to help us better understand students' cognitive behavior interacting with learning objects and learning situations, and therefore improve online learning environments and materials.- agermain agermain Oct 18, 2015 - lkoster lkoster Oct 22, 2015
There should be growing support for metrics and data from governments.- bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Oct 18, 2015 - ole ole Oct 19, 2015 - helga helga Oct 20, 2015 Wars of the future will be fought over data ownership. At the present time personal data is collected by almost every company we come into contact with. The places we shop, the places we work, the places we spend our leisure time all have data about the way we live our lives. The only thing stopping this amazing commodity from being harvested, processed and commercialised is its sheer volume, but once a way is found of processing the data into something useable... Of course we would only use the data we collect for the common good, wouldn't we? We wouldn't think of using a database of names, numbers and statistics for commercial gain. We will leave that to the Alumni office. (- damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Oct 20, 2015)Developing realistic measures of qualitative outcomes is a real challenge here, particularly in the humanities. - billshewbridge billshewbridge Oct 24, 2015 - DaveP DaveP Oct 25, 2015 Agreed. One of the possible outcomes of the Teaching Innovation Lab is to begin to begin to develop a platform where at least we are asking the right questions. Right now, I don't think that, unless you're talking edge cases, a true Learning Analytics platform is possible in large part because we've never come to a consensus on what we're measuring, not because of technical capabilities. - tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 25, 2015. Indeed, asking the right questions and responsible interpretation of data for the appropriate course of Action are key in this trend. Data is only useful if it allows us to act or make decisions wisely. - francisca francisca Oct 25, 2015
Much of the activity in this space has focused on top-down approaches and solutions: what will the professor/administrator be able to find out about their students? Much less attention has been paid to what the students themselves might do with this, how they might reconceptualize their own learning processes as a result, and how that might drive changes in what the professors/administrators do.- rubenrp rubenrp Oct 26, 2015 One driver for this trend would be the proliferation of data mining software that make easy to get results. For example, R (https://www.r-project.org/), an open source software, has several extensions for data mining. RapidMiner (https://rapidminer.com/) is a particularly interesting software that really make easy to get models that can predict academic results for students. Of course there are several commercial examples as SPSS (http://www-01.ibm.com/software/analytics/spss/products/modeler/) too. - jreinoso jreinoso

Increasing Cross-Institution Collaboration
Collective action among schools and districts is growing in importance for the future of higher education. More and more, institutions are joining consortia — associations of two or more organizations — to combine resources or to align themselves strategically with innovation in K-12 education. Today’s global environment is allowing universities to unite across international borders and work toward common goals concerning technology, research, or shared values. Support behind technology-enabled learning in classrooms has reinforced the trend toward open communities and university consortia, as educators and administrators recognize collective action as a sustainable method of supporting upgrades in technological infrastructure and IT services. We see this in our region with several higher ed institutions joining forces to help shape the future of the LMS they use. - deborah.cooke deborah.cooke Oct 15, 2015 Wonderful in principal, and capable of truly changing the world, but the way our institutions are funded effectively puts us into competition with each other for students, and their fees, therefore we are more likely to be supported in work that furthers our lead over the competition rather than work which will enable the competition to catch up with us. This report is one of the few truly collaborational pieces of work I have been involved in. (- damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Oct 20, 2015) - lkoster lkoster Oct 22, 2015 I agree w/Damian. The American higher education model is predicated on fierce competition. Additionally, antitrust laws spook some forms of collaboration. That said, the worsening economic situation for most campuses can drive collaboration designed to save or control costs.- bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Oct 25, 2015

Increasing Use of Blended Learning Designs
Over the past several years, perceptions of online learning have been shifting in its favor as more learners and educators see it as a viable alternative to some forms of face-to-face learning. Drawing from best practices in online and face-to-face methods, blended learning is on the rise at schools. The affordances of blended learning offers are now well understood, and its flexibility, ease of access, and the integration of sophisticated multimedia and technologies are high among the list of appeals. Recent developments of business models for universities are upping the ante of innovation in these digital environments, which are now widely considered to be ripe for new ideas, services, and products. While growing steadily, the recent focus in many education circles on the rapid rise and burnout of massive open online courses (MOOCs) has led to the view that these sorts of offerings may be fad-like. However, progress in learning analytics; adaptive learning; and a combination of cutting-edge asynchronous and synchronous tools will continue to advance the state of online learning and keep it compelling, though many of these methods are still the subjects of experiments and research by online learning providers and schools.

One of the driving factors in deciding to go with hybrid/blended learning designs is the impact it has on existing classroom space. - deborah.cooke deborah.cooke Oct 15, 2015 I agree - agermain agermain Oct 18, 2015 So do I, but I must add that too many he-teachers still believe that BL is an ad-onn - often at the post office level - and not a new way of teaching/learning. There still is a, information task. - ole ole Oct 19, 2015 - lkoster lkoster Oct 22, 2015 - paul.signorelli paul.signorelli Oct 23, 2015 Agreed that blended learning has efficacy, at least when courses are designed well and when programs are implemented thoughtfully.(If nothing else, nearly 20 years of evaluation data on blended learning at the University of Central Florida (UCF) and the oft-cited US DoE/SRI meta-analysis shows us this. A very quick summary of both is available at: https://blended.online.ucf.edu/about/benefits-of-blended-learning.) Certainly, there are examples of both courses and programs that have not been done well. A problem is that there are more "moving parts" to getting blended learning right than there are in fully online or fully face-to-face environments. Thus, it is difficult for institutions to harness the affordances of blended learning at scale. Even at UCF where there is a track record of success in blended learning (e.g., blended out-performs online and f2f), a robust faculty development program to prepare faculty to "redesign" courses for the blended environment, technical support, etc., there are fewer blended courses than online or f2f, and blended programs per se are practically non-existent. Blended learning is difficult to implement meaningfully at scale. However, it still holds much promise even if it is not an "easy fix." Of course, in addition to specific blended courses, the blended student experience (e.g., students choose a "swirl" of course modalities) is another manifestation of this trend. (See https://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/pub720316.pdf for more on this "swirl.") - kelvin kelvin Oct 25, 2015 It can also be a response to providing educational opportunities to those who are in rural areas. For example, the University of Waikato developed an undergraduate teacher education degree that blended f2f and distance that persists to this day. While it has continued to evolve, its first graduates were in 1996. It meant people could stay where they were most of the time, and use the local schools as practicum schools. Those undertaking this degree also learned a wide range of skills in using digital technologies that might not have occurred otherwise. Its blended nature includes, for each programme cohort, a f2f on campus week at the start and middle of each year. This introduces each other and lecturers as they start new papers, and establishes ground work and different learning opportunities - n.wright n.wright Oct 16, 2015 Blended learning is a good way to address students with ADHD. - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Oct 18, 2015 Factoring in the attention span of the learner and providing diversity in the learning activities minimizes drop off from mental disengagement and fosters greater motivation for learning and retention of knowledge. The dynamics of instruction cannot sit still when the mode of communication and interaction that is native to the learner continues to change and adaptive to a global connected society where information resource are constantly on hand and there is an expectation of immediate access. - Dougdar Dougdar Oct 23, 2015 Blended learning is the holy grail of education. The problem is, as you point out, that it is seen as something to be bolted on rather than integral to learning and teaching process. Adding a video or two and a couple of links is no substitute for creating a blended learning programme from the ground up. What often happens is that academics repurpose their ancient slides and notes, upload them to the VLE and pat themselves on the back for having "blended" their course. one of the problems is that they are neither encouraged nor empowered to start from scratch to create something amazing - new courses can take years to create, and go thought countless committees before they are agreed, by which time they are out of date. The ongoing relentless nature of HE means there is neither the time nor the money to create a new way of doing things, as in just a couple of months the new students will be arriving. Of course if academics didn't spend all that time on research, they could concentrate on improving teaching, but then they would have to kiss their career progression, and possibly their job, goodbye. Until teaching gains parity with research, it will always play second fiddle. (- damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Oct 20, 2015) In the college system in Ontario, the focus is more on teaching than research, however, time/money is still an issue in ensuring that blended learning is done effectively. - lkoster lkoster Oct 22, 2015 - DaveP DaveP Oct 25, 2015
According to Dian Schaffhauser’s article published on Campus Technology (https://campustechnology.com/articles/2015/10/20/flipped-classes-continue-evolving-at-stanford-and-harvard.aspx?m=1), flipped classroom technique is evolving toward a more hybrid model because it seems to be that some students need to attend class in order to be able to process video lectures - jreinoso jreinoso Oct 25, 2015

Proliferation of Open Educational Resources
Defined by the Hewlett Foundation in 2002, open educational resources (OER) are “teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use and re-purposing by others.” Momentum behind OER began early on, getting a major boost when the Massachusetts Institute of Technology founded the MIT OpenCourseWare (OCW) initiative in 2001, making MIT instruction materials for over 2,200 of its courses available online, free of charge. Soon after, prestigious universities including Carnegie Mellon University and Harvard University, among others, pushed forward their own open learning initiatives. Understanding that the term “open” is a multifaceted concept is essential to following this trend in higher education; often mistaken to simply mean “free of charge,” advocates of openness have worked towards a common vision that defines it more broadly — not just free in economic terms, but also in terms of ownership and usage rights. In New Zealand, the OER system of free exchange of ideas and educational resources has seen the development of a VLN (a virtual learning network of educators), POND, a repository and sharing space for teachers, and Wiki Educator. - n.wright n.wright Oct 16, 2015- JoanLippincott JoanLippincott Oct 17, 2015
A steady but incrementally growing trend. - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Oct 18, 2015 - francisca francisca Oct 25, 2015
A wonderful idea, and one that is indeed growing, but somebody somewhere must be paying for it. How about the undergraduates whose fees pay for your office, your lab, and your wages? Do they realise you are giving away the things you have created using their money for nothing? Perhaps they would see the benefit to humanity. Perhaps not. Don't get me wrong, I am all for OERs, but nothing is free of cost, even if it is given away free of charge and free of ownership rights, somebody, somewhere has footed the bill. (- damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Oct 20, 2015) - the irony being that there's a lot of interest in OER when funding is available, is there any true academic alturism? - neil.witt neil.witt Oct 25, 2015 In Open Education, people have open, shared, free of barriers and obstacles (social, cultural, economical, technological, personal diabilities etc.) access, use and management of educational resources (e.g. data, information, knowledge, software, books, articles, presentations, video, courses, teaching methods, teachers). They openly share resources, communicate and collaborate among themselves. - Anastasios.A.ECONOMIDES Anastasios.A.ECONOMIDES Oct 23, 2015 - DaveP DaveP Oct 25, 2015 A critical part of this, or related trend is the way in which these open resources and MOOCs have expanded the group of active learners -- changing the audience, impact, and in some cases the reputation of the educator. - escience escience Oct 25, 2015 The evaluation of these resources is a significant issue. We may applaud the fall of 'gatekeepers,' but then the value of the knowledge that is freely shared is increasingly in doubt. If you've ever looked at some OER in your field, you may have been dismayed at the quality: I have. (Likely it depends on your field.) The phenomenon of doubtful quality information is not specific to OER: it's part and parcel of the web. This is part of why the old information evaluation skills now re-branded and re-thought under banners like "digital literacies" are so important. Some of this contextual information which exposes the ambivalence of all these topics needs to be brought in as a matter of editorial policy. To avoid presenting separating trends and challenges (which makes it seem like trends *don't* bring challenges), it might be useful to include the ambivalence of each "opportunity." (I'm thinking of the old meme that in such-and-such language the word for "opportunity" is also the word for "danger." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_word_for_%22crisis%22 - edward.oneill edward.oneill Oct 25, 2015 Copyright and Fair Use What workflows can institutions adopt to teach faculty how to interpret the doctrine of 'fair use' and how to apply for copyright clearances as needed for their use of copyrighted video online? - deborah.cooke deborah.cooke Oct 15, 2015 With the advent of TPPP this is going to be much more complex than it is now. Educators in New Zealand have ETV for example, which provides access to television and movies for educational purposes. These items can be requested, downloaded, and annotated using a tool called Zaption. - n.wright n.wright Oct 16, 2015 - michael.lambert michael.lambert Oct 16, 2015 Good point about TPP. - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Oct 18, 2015 Agree this is an important challenge. I think that we may see more activity from students asking (or demanding) open access textbooks or other open access learning materials (OER) instead of being forced to buy very expensive textbooks, especially for introductory courses in subjects they have no intention of continuing to study. However, education of faculty, and their willingness to be "open" to "open access" continues to be a big challenge. Many faculty unfortunately have mistakenly decided that open access means poorer quality and/or not subject to peer review, neither of which can genuinely be equated with open access. - JoanLippincott JoanLippincott Oct 17, 2015 This is already a frequent request by students in US Higher Ed institutions, as well as the possibility, offered now by more publishers, to access only certain chapters of an online textbook. Publishers are adapting very quickly to this new way of looking at a (text)book not as an entity, but as a composite of materials for which access is partially given. The concept of learning objects is now part of the publishers' offers.- agermain agermain Oct 18, 2015 - kelvin kelvin Oct 25, 2015 - Anastasios.A.ECONOMIDES Anastasios.A.ECONOMIDES Oct 23, 2015 Fair use does not exist In The U.K. and copyright remains a huge barrier within education, particularly in subject areas that cannot avoid the use of copyrighted materials e.g. How can you teach music or art without riding roughshod over copyright laws? Publishers have indeed embraced the new, keen to develop new revenue streams by recycling their materials and producing online versions that can be accessed but at a cost. The credibility of OERs remains a problem - who is maintaining quality control? Once you have peer review, you need money to pay for it, which then means the resources themselves must be paid for, at which point they are no longer OERs. (- damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Oct 25, 2015) - francisca francisca Oct 25, 2015 Accessibility, copyright, intellectual property, and privacy are among the few key practices we are changing the Internet rather than it changing us. I am reminded of a quote by Scott Cleland (Forbes contributor) “the common thread for how the world is changing the Internet is that the world is making the Internet less universal in one way or another in order to address various concerns.” Regardless of how legislation and practices are changed, there is a strong tie to the previously mentioned challenge of improving digital literacy. First and foremost, mechanisms (networked community, professional development, tools, etc.) to help develop the attitude and abilities of a digital literate person in times of hiatus (with pending court rulings and such) are necessary. Open Education. In Open Education, people have open, shared, free of barriers and obstacles (social, cultural, economical, technological, personal diabilities etc.) access, use and management of educational resources (e.g. data, information, knowledge, software, books, articles, presentations, video, courses, teaching methods, teachers). They openly share resources, communicate and collaborate among themselves. - Anastasios.A.ECONOMIDES Anastasios.A.ECONOMIDES Oct 23, 2015 Whilst philosophiclly appealing, as I have stated in previous sections, somebody somewhere has to pay for Open Education. Whilst we may see it as a philanthropic gesture on our part, perhaps with a side order of marketing, the people who pay for our core services may not even know that we do it and unless we ask them, we have no way of knowing how they feel about us giving away resources created using their money. There are also question marks over who is accessing these resources, and for what purpose. A large part of the developing world who would benefit the most from access to these resources have no infrastructure with which to do so. We may think we are educating the world, but really we are just education the bit that has already received traditional education, which makes our philanthropic gesture a whole lot less effective. (- damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Oct 25, 2015) [Editor's Note: This fits in well with the discussion in RQ3 of "Proliferation of Open Educational Resources and will be moved there.]

Redesigning Learning Spaces
Some thought leaders believe that new forms of teaching and learning require new spaces for teaching and learning. More universities are helping to facilitate these emerging models of education, such as the flipped classroom, by rearranging learning environments to accommodate more active learning. Educational settings are increasingly designed to facilitate project-based interactions with attention to mobility, flexibility, and multiple device usage. Wireless bandwidth is being upgraded in institutions to create “smart rooms” that support web conferencing and other methods of remote, collaborative communication. Large displays and screens are being installed to enable collaboration on digital projects and informal presentations. As higher education continues to move away from traditional lecture-based programming and to more hands-on scenarios, university classrooms will start to resemble real-world work and social environments that facilitate organic interactions and cross-disciplinary problem solving. We have two such classrooms here at UO and the 'active learning' approach seems to be particulary well suited to foreign language instruction. - deborah.cooke deborah.cooke Oct 15, 2015 Agree although even large universities such as yours have a really limited number of these facilities available, as you demonstrate with "two classrooms." It will take awhile for much more reconfiguration to take place. - JoanLippincott JoanLippincott Oct 17, 2015 The rapid and continual evolution of learning spaces--onsite as well as online--is a particularly dynamic and exciting part of our current learning landscape. Flexible spaces are increasingly meeting the varied needs of learning facilitators and learners themselves, supporting a variety of learning approaches (e.g., the Flipped Classroom model and project-based learning), helping us see the benefits of moving away from a lecture-centric approach to learning, and drawing upon the benefits of taking a bring-your-own-device approach to some of our work--which not only helps learners work with equipment and tools that are comfortable and familiar to them, but also exposing us to equipment and tools that our learners can help us learn to use.- paul.signorelli paul.signorelli Oct 15, 2015- Sam Sam Oct 16, 2015 One interesting development at the University of Waikato is the changing use of the faculty of education's student cafe space. By adding things like more power plugs, fast wifi, some Chromebooks and spaces for collaboration, the most common site is for large groups of students to congregate and use the space to work in rather than the library (which they can access electronically). So, instead of it being principally a food and beverage space, it has morphed into a social learning space with the added bonus of quick access to food. - n.wright n.wright Oct 16, 2015
The Visualization Studio at the University of Calgary Library has been used as a seminar classroom, to display multiple sources of content as apposed to a single projector in a classroom and the University of Washington's Oodegard Library has just opened an interactive learning space.- s.sadler s.sadler Oct 17, 2015 In 2005 the European Commission created e-twinning (https://www.etwinning.net/en/pub/index.htm), a platform to enable schools and teachers of the European Union to communicate and collaborate via projects between classes across Europe. This platform, now available in 26 languages and counting more than 230 270 members, has enabled teachers to design project-based learning opportunities for their students who work collaboratively with peers in different european countries to complete projects in all types of disciplines. e-twinning, mostly geared towards primary and secondary education, is a great model to follow for Higher Education, with completely new learning spaces across classroom walls and borders.- agermain agermain Oct 18, 2015 I'd like to add a further perspective: Teaching and learning online is to many a challenge, and this challenge grows even more heavy when teaching acorss borders: Teaching/learning in the multicultural and multilingual classroom is no bed of roses, and everyday problems become much more pronounced. See this brand new report from the EU IntlUni project: http://intluni.eu/uploads/media/The_opportunities_and_challenges_of_the_MMLS_Final_report_sept_2015.pdf. - ole ole Oct 19, 2015
Funnily enough, our new library has more collaborative spaces, power points, wifi hotspots and interactive touch screens than the rest of the university put together, and consequently has a much more buzzy cafe-like atmosphere. They have to put any books in there. Perhaps they never will. (- damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Oct 20, 2015) We just re-designed our library as well. Not many books left. There are different areas depending on how students want to work(with power/internet), collaboration rooms (with table for 8, white boards, video screens, plugs, wired internet), group meeting rooms (with comfortable seating, white boards, video screens, plugs, wired internet), and areas where students can walk in & use a computer (standing or sitting). The same day it opened, students filled the spaces, etc and were actively working in the collaboration/group rooms. It was like it was there all along. For such a busy place, I couldn't believe how quiet it was. - lkoster lkoster Oct 22, 2015 Redesigning learning spaces forms a fundamental core of what needs to happen to reinvent, innovate, and ultimately change what we are doing as institutions. However, it is by itself insufficient to create lasting change unless it is coupled with a broader vision that includes a fundamental focus on those using these spaces. First of all, it needs to be made clear that the concept of a "learning space" extends far beyond what we traditionally think as a classroom. We've had "learning space" classrooms in pilot form at HCC for over a decade now. However innovative what happens in those rooms is, students walk out of them into traditional hallways, libraries, etc. that effect is blunted. Furthermore, many faculty have no idea what to do with a "learning space" classroom. I've seen them line up all of the tables in rows and then complain that there is no "front" of the room to lecture from. This highlights the bigger problem in that physical space changes need to coupled with "time" for faculty to evaluate what they are doing pedagogically and have to be incorporated into a broader "structure" that incorporates them into the broader campus/college vision. Without this more comprehensive vision we may never get a real handle on what's working and what's not. Unfortunately, the challenge of reshaping the physical spaces themselves is often so great because many don't realize the significance of the effort and subsequently reject the extra costs and or reduced enrollment per square foot that they represent to the point where we never get into discussions of supporting "time" and "structures". I've outlined a plan for structure in many talks I've given and have made a website describing the concept at ideaspaces.net. - tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 21, 2015 - lkoster lkoster Oct 22, 2015 I would add that many faculty are downright hostile to the ideas - not just a particular implementation - associated with the redesign of learning spaces. For a recent example, check out the article by Molly Worthen in the NYT: Lecture Me. Really.- rubenrp rubenrp Oct 26, 2015 The key questions about university learning environments are quite simply: What is a learning environment in a world where access to information is ubiquitous? What is a learning environment when students and teachers can interact, collaborate, and learn without being physically present in the same space? The physical environment is the richest learning experience possible, are we emphasizing the unique possibilities that gathering a group people together affords us? This third question should be the one that informs physical learning space design, support, and strategy. A great resource that addresses these issues is the Learning Space Rating System(LSRS) a project that provides a set of measurable criteria to assess how well the design of classrooms support and enable active learning activities http://www.educause.edu/eli/initiatives/learning-space-rating-system - cevetell cevetell Oct 22, 2015 Excellent point and a great project. - tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 22, 2015 - lkoster lkoster Oct 22, 2015 - Dougdar Dougdar Oct 23, 2015 - helga helga Oct 23, 2015 While I wholeheartedly agree on the need to reimagine the physical spaces for learning at the academy, I believe that the virtual space is been neglected. If the objective is to design a space for learning in which learners can engage in conversations, co-create meaning and display content/portfolios, and showcase the outcomes of their learning, both physical (classroom, lab, etc.) and virtual (telepresence, virtual reality, immersive environments, etc. ) are equally suited and currently used. The key would be to identify what, when, where, and how to design these spaces for learning to take place. A framework I always go back to although its original focus is on fostering innovation is Tom Haymes’ Idea Spaces hierarchy for innovation. The only item I would change, really add, is the virtual aspect in the realm of space. - francisca francisca Oct 25, 2015 Changes in Learning Spaces Whether in classroom building or libraries, I don't think we should underestimate the resources required to make major changes in learning spaces, especially throughout a campus. Even large universities frequently have less than 5 problem-based learning classrooms (in the sense that we think of them today with technological capabilities). It takes a lot of money and some time to transform classrooms, and because they seat fewer students in the same amount of space, many campus facility planners will not approve such plans. When the new style classrooms are opened, many universities (professional staff) complain that faculty sign up to hold their classes there merely because of the nice ambiance and not because they will be using different pedagogy. While some universities put training programs and requirements in place for faculty use of those rooms, it is not universal. In libraries, again, costly renovations may be desired but are often put on hold while fundraising efforts are made and approvals from campus or state facilities units are sought. When the facilities are renovated, often so much time has been invested into planning the physical space that new types of programs in those spaces have not been developed to genuinely take advantage of the new technologies and configurations. There are many challenges in this area. - JoanLippincott JoanLippincott Oct 17, 2015 I agree. The design of learning spaces in Higher Ed institutions is still a huge challenge, which slows down the adoption of active pedagogies with a smooth integration of technology in learning situations. - agermain agermain Oct 18, 2015 - lkoster lkoster Oct 25, 2015 - michael.lambert michael.lambert Oct 18, 2015 Of course, if Bryan is correct and we've hit peak enrollment those same overcrowded classrooms might seem a lot larger. - tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 20, 2015 Since it's probably obvious to many of us that spaces support or hinder the way we approach the learning process, this is another of the many major challenges deserving out attention. Tom Haymes' work in documenting and helping shape the changes that are occurring remain a strong, positive source of inspiration for me.- paul.signorelli paul.signorelli Oct 23, 2015 [Editor's Note: This fits into existing RQ3 Trend: Rethinking Learning Spaces.]

Rethinking How Schools Work
There is a focused movement to reinvent the traditional classroom paradigm and rearrange the entire school experience — a trend that is largely being driven by the influence of innovative learning approaches. Methods such as project- and challenge-based learning call for school structures that enable students to move from one learning activity to another more organically, removing the limitations of the traditional bell schedule. Moreover, these novel arrangements encourage renovation of classroom layouts to with the express focus of facilitating more group interaction. Century old practices in which students learn subject by subject while uniformly facing the front of the classroom are perceived by many as an antiquated approach to teaching and learning. The multidisciplinary nature of project-based learning and other contemporary approaches has brought attention to innovative designs of the school atmosphere that link each class and subject matter to each other.. As learning becomes more fluid and student-centered, some teachers and administrators believe that schedules should be more flexible to allow opportunities for more authentic learning to take place and ample room for independent study.
A piece of this is a growing recognition that seat time/credit hour is not a good proxy for learning. As calls for accountability have grown over the last decades and an awareness of, and some level of attention to, outcomes has taken hold, we're starting to ask foundational questions about the value of college in learning and what a degree actually means. Those tough questions are forcing us to take a good look at how higher ed works and rethink some of the basic assumptions, like what it is students get credit for. The tech available and the new networked/modular/personalized ways we interact with our world today are aligning with that questioning to offer new ideas on how schooling can work. - kvogt kvogt Oct 15, 2015 - shaffeje shaffeje Oct 25, 2015 Indeed. Looking a competency-based models for Higher Ed might be useful. Bradley, Seidman and Painchaud’s book: Saving Higher Education: The integrated, competency-based, three-year Bachelor’s degree Program, 2011, offers an interesting perspective that has been implemented at Southern New Hampshire University. - agermain agermain Oct 18, 2015 Yes and how to rethink with "Mobile First" in mind. - michael.lambert michael.lambert Oct 18, 2015 - ole ole Oct 19, 2015 - shaffeje shaffeje Oct 25, 2015 What is a degree? What is a university? What is the point of either of them? These are questions to which I once believed we knew the answer, but now I am not so sure. Perhaps if we can redefine their meaning, it will lead us to being able to redefine the way they work, and the way teaching and learning takes place (- damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Oct 20, 2015)

Rise of New Forms of Interdisciplinary Studies
According to the Melbourne Sustainable Society Institute, multidisciplinary research refers to concurrent exploration and activities in seemingly disparate fields. Digital humanities and computational social science research approaches are opening up pioneering areas of multidisciplinary research at libraries and innovative forms of scholarship and publication. Researchers, along with academic technologists and developers, are breaking new ground with data structures, visualization, geospatial applications, and innovative uses of open-source tools. At the same time, they are pioneering new forms of scholarly publication that combine traditional static print style scholarship with dynamic and interactive tools, which enables real-time manipulation of research data. Applying quantitative methods to traditionally qualitative disciplines has led to new research categories such as Distant Reading and Macroanalysis — the study of large corpuses of texts as opposed to close reading of a few texts. These emerging areas could lead to exciting new developments in education, but effective organizational structures will need to be in place to support this collaboration. Agree; fascinating new fields and use of data within them such as Smart Cities movement http://cities.media.mit.edu/ , Arctic Studies, etc.- JoanLippincott JoanLippincott Oct 17, 2015
Digital humanities is definitely important. - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Oct 18, 2015 - rubenrp rubenrp Oct 26, 2015The post-graduate expectation by employing industries is for individuals to be able to solve problems within interdisciplinary groups. Greater options for interdisciplinary study helps to ensure greater flexibility within academic programs and promotes the level of real-world readiness in students needed for success. - Dougdar Dougdar Oct 23, 2015 From my vantage, interdisciplinary has been ballyhooed and supported institutionally in various ways. But there are always new approaches emerging, and the new sucks up the energy from the old. American Studies was new once and is now a standard bearer, though it doesn't exist at all institutions, only those that can afford it or had an historical role in pioneering it. Some institutions skipped film studies and later instead adopted media studies. Some institutions skipped Visual Studies and instead got a later incarnation of Transmedia Studies. Etc., etc. - edward.oneill edward.oneill Oct 25, 2015

Shift from Students as Consumers to Students as Creators
A shift is taking place in the focus of pedagogical practice in schools all over the world as students in across a wide variety of disciplines are learning by making and creating rather than from the simple consumption of content. Creativity, as illustrated by the growth of user-generated videos, maker communities, and crowdfunded projects in the past couple years, is increasingly the means for active, hands-on learning. - paul.signorelli paul.signorelli Oct 15, 2015 Agree - JoanLippincott JoanLippincott Oct 17, 2015 In a world where employers and other members of our communities continually remark upon the value of creativity to our long-term success and viability, the shift from students as consumers to students as creators clearly has a variety of benefits within the learning environments and within the larger communities served by those who benefit from our teaching-training-learning efforts. (And, as always, it's worth noting that this doesn't have to be an either-or choice: students and others engaged in lifelong learning can benefit from being consumers as well as creators.) Agree - s.sadler s.sadler Oct 17, 2015 Surely a combination of creation and consumption is ideal, not only in education but in life? But for now let's stick with education. We still insist on our students sitting exams and/or writing dissertations in order to earn their qualifications. Wouldn't it be wonderful if we could ask them to create something new and innovative that actually made a positive impact in their field, if not the world? (- damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Oct 20, 2015) Agree.- paul.signorelli paul.signorelli Oct 23, 2015. All for not treating students as consumers, there's move in the UK to develop in partnership with students covering curriculum design , new programmes and content development - neil.witt neil.witt Oct 25, 2015 This trend is aligned with the Association of College and Research Library's newly revised Information Literacy standards, which focus on exploration and creation as a core part of scholarship (see
http://www.ala.org/acrl/standards/ilframework) - a.gyorke a.gyorke Oct 23, 2015

Shift to Deep Learning Approaches
There is a new emphasis in the classroom on deeper learning approaches, defined by the Alliance for Excellent Education as the delivery of rich core content to students in innovative ways that allow them to learn and then apply what they have learned. Project-based Learning, Problem-Based Learning, Inquiry-Based Learning, Challenge-Based Learning and similar methods foster more active learning experiences, both inside and outside the classroom. As technologies such as tablets and smartphones are more readily accepted in schools, educators are leveraging these tools, which students already use, to connect the curriculum with real life applications. These active learning approaches are decidedly more student-centered, allowing learners to take control of how they engage with a subject and to brainstorm and implement solutions to pressing local and global problems. The hope is that if learners can connect the course material with their own lives and their surrounding communities, then they will become more excited to learn and immerse themselves in the subject matter. - paul.signorelli paul.signorelli Oct 15, 2015 Agree and would also make reference to the Degree Qualifications Profile (DQP) which calls for students to demonstrate their abilities in project-based learning, developing projects in both text and new media, demonstrate their ability to work collaboratively, etc. degreeprofile.org/ - JoanLippincott JoanLippincott Oct 17, 2015 This goes hand-in-hand with the benefits of redesigning/rethinking our learning spaces and the shift from students to consumer to students as creators. We're exploring and utilizing increasingly engaging ways of supporting the learning process for out learners in ways that may help them more effectively contribute in their/our workplaces and their/our communities, where skills developed through deep-learning approaches have lifelong applications. Have a look at The European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning (EQF) http://ec.europa.eu/ploteus/sites/eac-eqf/files/broch_en.pdf. It might give some inspiration to this important discussion. - ole ole Oct 19, 2015 About time too - if we redefine the purpose of the degree, we can redefine what we teach and the way we teach it. (- damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Oct 20, 2015) - Anastasios.A.ECONOMIDES Anastasios.A.ECONOMIDES Oct 23, 2015 Focus on Active and Experiential Learning - tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 21, 2015 There is a growing body of evidence that experiential and active learning are more effective strategies when it comes to getting our students ready for 21st Century challenges. This dovetails into many of the topics discussed above and I think we can do some creative editing to pull all of these things together going forward. (Sam, you have work to do.) I just don't want to lose sight the base thought that doing is always a better learning strategy than listening. Whether that means that your science courses are based on experimentation rather than lecture or creating experiences for students in a MakerSpace, this is clearly the path forward. Entrepreneurship is another area where you have to do it, not just talk about it. Even in traditional "lecture" areas such as history or government the challenge is to come up with ways to get the students to become active participants in their learning. As I blogged about several years ago, I found the assignment in my government course that was most effective was a public website where students had to explain and defend an issue that had some relevance to them. In retrospect, this was the most active part of the class. Everything we are building at the West Houston Institute is being designed with an experiential/active learning core. Teachers need to actively participate in the reinvention of teaching rather than being passive recipients of "wisdom" on how to do so. Higher education in general has to break away from a passive information delivery vehicle to an active vehicle for the transformation of our students and communities. This has to start with active and experiential learning, both for ourselves and our students. - shaffeje shaffeje Oct 25, 2015 Couldn't agree more, Tom. But it is going to be a long, slow process changing from chalk and talk to make and do. (- damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Oct 22, 2015) Active, experiential learning provides the concrete scaffoldings needed to develop knowledge outcomes that are transferable and able to apply towards ongoing objectives. Just as illustrated in Kolb's Experiential Learning Cycle, these concrete experience are the foundational knowledge bases that learners will enter into any new endeavor with to acquire new skills and understanding. Beyond, this point, though, the idea of problem based learning should be given careful consideration as the practical application of knowledge and understanding towards a real-life situation can generate a deeper sense of investment in the outcome. - Dougdar Dougdar Oct 23, 2015 Yes...students need classes that offer engagement, not just sit and listen. - michael.lambert michael.lambert Oct 24, 2015 - lkoster lkoster Oct 25, 2015 I think that not giving the answers up front is a key to wonderment and curiosity. Active learning, done correctly, starts you with a mystery and leads to questions. To quote a favorite novel of mine: “It’s the questions we can’t answer that teach us the most. They teach us how to think. If you give a man an answer, all he gains is a little fact. But give him a question and he’ll look for his own answers.” - Patrick Rothfuss - tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 25, 2015 Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematicsScott Freemana,1, Sarah L. Eddya, Miles McDonougha, Michelle K. Smithb, Nnadozie Okoroafora, Hannah Jordta, and Mary Pat Wenderotha
- tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 21, 2015 Just after I finished writing this, one of my colleagues sent me the following links: Notice Inviting Postsecondary Educational Institutions To Participate in Experiments Under the Experimental Sites Initiative:
https://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2015/10/15/2015-26239/notice-inviting-postsecondary-educational-institutions-to-participate-in-experiments-under-the A Boon to Boot Camps? U.S. Extends Aid to Campus Deals With Nontraditional Programs: http://chronicle.com/article/A-Boon-to-Boot-Camps-US/233742 Workplace learning, learning-by-doing, project-based learning are other related learning/teaching methods/pedagogies. They are well suited for some educational fields. However, they require extra time and effort for guiding students. - Anastasios.A.ECONOMIDES Anastasios.A.ECONOMIDES Oct 23, 2015

Increasing Internationalization of Higher Education
Connections between institutions and countries are on the rise. The European Higher Education Area allows students to shift credits across national borders. Students are increasingly migrating around the world seeking the best educational experiences. The United States has ramped up its recruitment of international students. Several Middle Eastern nations are aggressively courting Western educational enterprises. Yale just opened a liberal arts campus in Singapore. And so on. What does this mean for education? How will campuses change? - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Oct 25, 2015 Demographic Transformation Major population changes are occurring and could transform education. More developed nations (Japan, northern Europe, the United States, Canada) are "graying", seeing their senior population grow while the numbers of children and teenagers shrink. At the same time many developing nations in the global south (Africa, southeast Asia, parts of Latin America) are experiencing a youth boom, accompanied by relatively small numbers of elders. The first group faces the challenge of maintaining academic finances while its classic constituency dwindles; the second, how to expand access to high quality post-secondary education. - bryan.alexander bryan.alexander Oct 19, 2015 - tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 21, 2015 The Asian population continues to swell, relocate and adapt to new learning environments. - michael.lambert michael.lambert Oct 24, 2015 The increase in International students poses additional issues such as language and cultural differences within the classroom and helping students to adapt to a new country. - lkoster lkoster Oct 25, 2015 [Editor's Note: This fits into existing RQ3 Trend: Internationalization of Higher Ed.]

Shift in Information Economics/Political Economy
(Not sure whether best here, or w/in each technology section). A recurring (although far from universal) consequence of the changes in technology occurring now is "disruption". Disruption, as we have seen it evolve with respect to information technologies most often occurs when technologies dramatically change an important economic property -- such as the marginal cost of use; the effort to evaluate product quality; or returns to scale. We should draw specific attention to areas in which the technologies we discuss are , or have the potential to, shift the economics of the activity. Perhaps this is best addressed within each technology, or as a general driver... See for example, our recent analysis of the scholarly publishing system: http://content.iospress.com/articles/information-services-and-use/isu775 - escience escience Oct 25, 2015


Added to RQ3 as New Trends


Hyper-Convergence of Technology
- tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 21, 2015 Many developments that we used to think of separately are converging into, as yet unnamed conglomerations. To cite just one example, Active Learning and Making are two sides of the same coin. I can see a vision of hyper-local location technologies being incorporated instructionally or inspirationally into MakerSpaces. Reinventing teaching and business processes go hand-in-hand with creating these kinds of spaces. So, where does this land? What technology are we talking about? As industrial barriers to innovation fall, this kind of mixing will become increasingly common. Why are drones such a big deal? We've had remote-controlled planes for decades. It's because we've suddenly added computing and sensing technologies to them, giving them brains and "eyes" that they didn't have before but at the same time completely reinventing their purpose. I'm open to suggestions about names but I think we need something to describe the concept of disparate technologies increasingly coming together to form totally new ones (an old process) but at unprecedented speed and scale. - tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 21, 2015 Agreed. A number of the technologies we review will not emerge as truly significant in and of themselves, but should prove to be influence as components of a converged technological entity. - Dougdar Dougdar Oct 22, 2015 - helga helga Oct 23, 2015- agermain agermain Oct 25, 2015- rubenrp rubenrp Oct 26, 2015 [Editor's Note: Moved here from RQ2.]

The Rise of the EdTech Startups
...and their impact on education. Colleges and universities are facing new competition for customers--students and their parents--from startups delivering similar goods (knowledge, credentials, prestige) more affordably and efficiently. Many of the tools that bring innovation in and beyond the classroom today come from startups rather than the LMS or campus IT. Some of these tools/apps are LTI-ready that means they easily integrate with the existing LMS on campus. These plug and play tools/apps become source for much creativity and inspiration by both teachers and students. 1. http://www.inc.com/ilan-mochari/16-startups-that-will-disrupt-the-education-market.html
2. https://www.pehub.com/2015/08/intel-capital-to-provide-up-to-100k-each-for-eight-edtech-startups/ 3. https://www.edsurge.com/news/2015-07-02-the-20-edtech-startups-changing-education-in-europe
4. http://edtecheurope.com/index.php/news/2015-edtech-20-finalists-winners/ - Maya Maya Oct 19, 2015Maya Georgieva [Editor's Note: Moved here from RQ2.]

Rise of Alternative Credentialing
- US Department of Education Opens Financial Aid to Students in ‘Bootcamps’ and Non-Institutional Programs - Ted Mitchell, Under Secretary of Education at the US Department of Education, thinks he has an answer. Today he is announcing that the federal government will loosen restrictions on schools that work with “alternative education providers,” including massive online open course (MOOCs) developers and coding bootcamps. Here’s the kicker: Students enrolled in select programs can be eligible for Title IV federal financial aid.
The US Department of Education has launched the “Educational Quality through Innovation Partnerships” (EQUIP) pilot, open to carefully selected colleges or universities that work with non-institutional providers to create new programs. These partnerships must include an independent, third-party “Quality Assurance Entity” of the school’s choosing that will monitor and evaluate the program’s rigor. The school’s accrediting agency must also approve. https://www.edsurge.com/news/2015-10-14-us-department-of-education-opens-financial-aid-to-students-in-bootcamps-and-non-institutional-programs Inside Higher Ed: A New Route to Student Aid
The New York Times: New Federal Program Offers Students Aid for Nontraditional Education
The Chronicle of Higher Education: A Boon to Boot Camps? U.S. Extends Aid to Campus Deals With Nontraditional Programs
- Maya Maya Oct 19, 2015Maya Georgieva - escience escience Oct 25, 2015 [Editor's Note: Moved here from RQ2.]
External partnership to put degrees online - There has been a steady increase in university partnerships with companies such as 2U, Learning House, HotChalk and others that provide turnkey solution to put degree programs online. In search of new revenue models institutions are looking at a variety of online degrees - Maya Maya Oct 18, 2015Maya Georgieva
Why does the world need even more generic low quality online programmes? We already have the University of Phoenix. (- damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Oct 20, 2015) - Actually, these companies are partnering with top US universities (http://2u.com/about/partners/) and the degrees do not come cheap and many of them respond to very specific skills or needs.These partnerships come about as universities are looking to capture new revenue streams and increase student enrollment in some cases beyond the US. These companies present an answer for universities willing to offer online degrees and at the same time acknowledging that they do not have reliable technology, instructional design and operational support readily available on campus. Companies like 2U offer alternatives that interested universities are considering in order to enter and stay competitive in the online education world. In a way these partnerships come as a response to the universities of Phoenix and other low cost providers in an attempt to offer quality options to a students that are increasingly mobile and interested in enrolling in online degrees. It is interesting to observe these partnerships as an evolution of the Higher Ed landscape. - Maya Maya Oct 21, 2015Maya Georgieva Alternative Credentialing - US Department of Education Opens Financial Aid to Students in ‘Bootcamps’ and Non-Institutional Programs - Ted Mitchell, Under Secretary of Education at the US Department of Education, thinks he has an answer. Today he is announcing that the federal government will loosen restrictions on schools that work with “alternative education providers,” including massive online open course (MOOCs) developers and coding bootcamps. Here’s the kicker: Students enrolled in select programs can be eligible for Title IV federal financial aid.
The US Department of Education has launched the “Educational Quality through Innovation Partnerships” (EQUIP) pilot, open to carefully selected colleges or universities that work with non-institutional providers to create new programs. These partnerships must include an independent, third-party “Quality Assurance Entity” of the school’s choosing that will monitor and evaluate the program’s rigor. The school’s accrediting agency must also approve.
https://www.edsurge.com/news/2015-10-14-us-department-of-education-opens-financial-aid-to-students-in-bootcamps-and-non-institutional-programs Inside Higher Ed: A New Route to Student Aid The New York Times: New Federal Program Offers Students Aid for Nontraditional Education The Chronicle of Higher Education: A Boon to Boot Camps? U.S. Extends Aid to Campus Deals With Nontraditional Programs - Maya Maya Oct 19, 2015Maya Georgieva


Added to RQ4 Challenges:


Deconstruction of the Teacher
- michael.lambert michael.lambert Sep 30, 2015 Welcome to University of Internet. Teachers, artists, scientists, musicians and students design courses, place them in a module format, open to the public. The student follows the course outline to work through the lessons, receives immediate feedback and progresses to the next level at any time – no waiting. The Internet has transformed our tradition –attend university to advance your skills. Today, online courses are rated like products and the virtual campus is valued by businesses. Watching videos, collaborating with others online, and engaging in learning activities allows the students to meet the course objectives, often, without the teacher. The teacher is becoming marginalized and challenged, at the least, in the area of content delivery. Disruption is at the core of a teacher’s role; new jobs emerge. We have a proprietary LMS at UO (Global Ed department) that provides just this kind of platform. - deborah.cooke deborah.cooke Oct 15, 2015 Certainly the idea of teacher as deliver of content is fast becoming outmoded and irrelevant. However, the synthesis of ideas and their dissemination is still critical. What these developments indicate is the growing need to better understand how to facilitate deep thinking and adjust the teaching-learning continuum as needed. I suggest that there is a greater need than ever for educators at all levels who deeply understand teaching and learning. The recent OECD report on PISA results centred on the use of ICT in schools is a clear indicator of this (http://www.oecd.org/edu/students-computers-and-learning-9789264239555-en.htm) - n.wright n.wright Oct 16, 2015 This is where faculty development is essential, and needs to be recognized by Higher Ed administrations as valuable time to spend for their faculty.- agermain agermain Oct 18, 2015 Well no wonder the academics live in fear of technology making them redundant. It will. But at what cost? The most important thing I learned at university was who I am, and that had far more to do with my face to face interactions with the academics and my fellow students than it had to do with reading books, passing tests and annual fact regurgitation in exams. I would much rather think about the RE-construction of the teacher - they should always have a part to play education. (- damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Oct 20, 2015) There remains a deep problem within faculty development itself. We've spent decades trying to reinvent teaching from above and results have, to put it mildly, disappointing. In many ways we are perpetuating the same problems we are ostensibly trying to address. We're trying to get teachers to stop lecturing by lecturing to them. It has been my experience that the most effective "professional development" comes from below - in other words from the teachers themselves. One example of this is the New Media Seminar, started by Gardner Campbell at Baylor in 2010. I've been facilitating this seminar at HCC for four years now and I've found that faculty, given the opportunity and support, tend to reinvent themselves in many cases. The outcomes are unpredictable but many of the participants in the seminar have assumed leadership positions within the faculty and are now in a position to implement some of the visions generated in the seminar discussions. There are leaders and followers in this process but if you can get a core of "bootstrappers" going, others will follow. - tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 21, 2015 Another challenge and hurdle is lowering the barriers to accessing technology. One of the most "revolutionary" and impactful things we've implemented over the last year has been our pilot of Penn State's One Button Studio. There is nothing revolutionary about the tech but the ease-of-use has attracted faculty to it like moths to a flame, both for their own use as well as an assignment tool for their students. If you create an environment of change, cultural shifts will start to happen and one day you'll look in the mirror and see that teachers have already deconstructed themselves and are remaking the educational environment - tom.haymes tom.haymes Oct 21, 2015 - shaffeje shaffeje Oct 25, 2015 Labor issues? Also, thinking of the famous New Yorker Cartoon: "On the internet no one knows you're not a professor." Are we talking about the deprofessionalization of teaching and research? A leveling of the playing field which is beneficial? Or deceptive? - edward.oneill edward.oneill Oct 25, 2015 [Editor's Note: This fits in with current Challenge "Rethinking the Roles of Teachers," so we're adding it to RQ4.]

Creating New Forms of Authentic Assessment
- kevin.ashford-rowe kevin.ashford-rowe Oct 4, 2015 In seeking to align learning and teaching outcomes with industry expectations, educators have increasingly turning to a constructivist philosophy, where competence is perceived not in terms of just skill mastery but it is also situated and personalised, with an emphasis placed upon the need for a closer alignment of assessment with performance in the 'real world'. Such alignment is increasingly sought through the application of technology enhanced learning where virtualisation can provide the high degrees of fidelity often necessary in the delivery of an authentic (learning) and assessment experience. Kevin Ashford-Rowe, Janice Herrington & Christine Brown (2014). Establishing the critical elements that determine authentic assessment, Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 39:2, 205-222 Yes...and we need to create assessments that reflect more than a paper/digital exam, research paper or project. The exam can be # of hits on webite, engagement on a blog, hours worked, added value to a community or organization, photos that tell the story....these examples may not be all practical but nonetheless, a place where we can think beyond 'previous century thinking,' believes - michael.lambert michael.lambert Oct 16, 2015. - JoanLippincott JoanLippincott Oct 17, 2015 Project-based and competency-based approaches definitively facilitate authentic assessment. - agermain agermain Oct 18, 2015 Amen to that. Life is not an exam, it's a continuous assessment. If we are tasked with preparing students for life, we should do it right (- damian.mcdonald damian.mcdonald Oct 20, 2015) - Anastasios.A.ECONOMIDES Anastasios.A.ECONOMIDES Oct 23, 2015 - helga helga Oct 23, 2015- lkoster lkoster Oct 25, 2015


Combined with Existing RQ1 Topic


Surface Book and Surface Pro Technologies
- shaffeje shaffeje Oct 25, 2015 It doesn't appear that anyone has really mentioned technology products and devices here as a trend to impact technology adoption. With Microsoft's latest announcement of the Surface Book and other technologies, I think technology purchased by students will continue to encourage the adoption of technology. Besides being a mobile device and online learning continuing to grow, I see the "inking" feature encouraging more technology adoption among faculty and students. When writing on a tablet/laptop becomes as easy as writing on a sheet of paper there is potential to disrupt our normal processes. See the article Teacher's Perspective on the Surface Pro 3. The other trend with Surface Pro and Surface Book type devices is the versatility of the devices. They are no longer a laptop or a tablet but both. These devices are also designed to connect with all other devices (wearable technologies, phone, game consoles, etc.). In addition, touch screens are changing the way we are designing learning spaces. My institution is currently looking at more pod/modular like learning stations in classrooms where students and faculty may stand and work around a large touch screen. And, what about a large screen that incorporates "inking"? That could potentially replace chalk boards, white boards, and interactive whiteboards because you are working directly with a computer. This technology will impact teaching and learning at some point because our elementary students have already been using this technology for 5 years now. They have not been trained to point and click but to touch. I mentioned Microsoft's newest products because I don't believe faculty have really begun to think about how the technologies are going to change the way our students learn and how that is going to impact (or should impact) higher education. - shaffeje shaffeje Oct 25, 2015 [Editor's Note: This reads more like a development in technology, specifically mobile learning, and will be combined with that topic in RQ1.]